. , , ,

,,,

B

1 ...................................................... 2

2 .... 3

3 .................. 4

3.1 . ........... 4

3.2 .......... 5

3.3 e-f ................... 7

3.4 ....................... 8

3.5 ........................ 9

4 ....................................................... 10

4.1 ......................................... 10

4.2 . ........................ 10

4.3 ...................................... 11

5 ................. 14

5.1 ....................................... 14

5.2 ............................. 14

6 ................. 15

7 ................... 15

7.1 - ..... 15

7.2 .................................... 16

7.2.1 1-2 ............................................... 16

7.2.2 2-2' .............................................. 17

7.2.3 2'-4 .............................................. 17

7.2.4 4-1 ............................................... 17

7.2.5 .............................................. 17

8 .......................................... 18

8.1 ........ 18

8.2 ..................... 19

8.2.1 ...................... 19

8.2.2 .................. 20

8.3 ...... 20

...................................................... 22

...................................................... 23


B1

- ,

, , -

- -

, , , -

.

-

,

. -

,

- (),

, -

().

, -

, -

, -

, , -

, -

.

Ѡ

-

. -

, -

, ,

.

,

-

, -

, -

, -

.

-

-

, -

(, ).


@ B2 .

-l─── ┌───┐ │

┌──┘ └──┐ a-│-a

│ ┌──┼───────────┘ 1

│ │ ┌──────────────>─────────────────────────┼─┐

│ / │ │ ┌──────────<─────┐ 1 │

│ ──┼───────────┐ │ │

-y─── │ │ │ │ b-│-b │ │

│ ┌──┼───<───┼───│───────────────────┐ │

│ │ │ │ │ │ │ │

│ / │ │ │ ꠠ │ │ │ │

│ ──┼───>───┼───│────┐ │ │ │

│ │ │ │ d │ │ │ │ │

-x─── │ ┌──┼─────────┼─┤ │ │ │ │

│ │ │ │ d │ │ │ │ │

│ / │ │ │ │ │ │ ┌<─┐ │ │

│ │ │ │ ┌──────┴─┴┐ │ │ 񠠠 │

│ / │ │ │ ││ │ ┌─┼─┐ │/│

│ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ ^ │ │ │

│ / │ │ │ └─┬───────┘ │ │ │ │ ─ ─ ─ ─ ─│ │

│ │ │ │ o─│─o │ └─┬─┘ │ │

┌───────┘ / e└─┼───┼──┐ f ┌──┴─┐ g │ │ │

│ ─┼┐ │ │┌─┼──┼──┤//├──┼─ │ │ │

│ ┌──────┐e│ └//┘│ │ f /└──┬─┘ g │ │ 2─│─2

│ │ ├┐│ │┌┤ p─│─p │ │ │

│ │ ├┘│ │└┤ │ │ │2'┌────────┐ │

│ │ ├┐│ │┌┤ └─><────>─┘ └┼─┤┌///┐├──┘

│ │ ├┘└──────┘└┤ 2'└┼──────┼┘

└────────┴──────┴──────────┘ │ │

┌──────────────────────────────────────────┬───────────────┐

│ / 1 │ │

├─────────┬─────────┬─────────┬────────────┼───────┬───────┤

│ 24 │ 26 │ 36 │ 38  │ []│ D │

├─────────┼─────────┼─────────┼────────────┼───────┼───────┤

│ 0.00010 │ 0.0138 │ 0.00078 │ 0.00080 │ 378 │ 102/8 │

└─────────┴─────────┴─────────┴────────────┴───────┴───────┘

-, -

b = 468 , d-d -

. = 0.01002 /.

= 900 .

,

:

┌────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┐

│ / 1 󠠠 │

├──────┬───────┬───────┬────────┬────────┬────────┬──────┬───────┤

│4 │ 24 │ 26 │ 36 │ 46 │ 66 │410 │  │

├──────┼───────┼───────┼────────┼────────┼────────┼──────┼───────┤

│0.0034│ 0.0084│ 0.0046│ 0.00045│ 0.00019│ 0.00008│0.0001│ 0.0001│

└──────┴───────┴───────┴────────┴────────┴────────┴──────┴───────┘

Pf = 3.5 . Tf = 1110 K.

,

-- , -

- (), -

, , , , -

. -

. -

= 250 , g = 673 K.

B3

@3.1 .

1. 2. .

,

. = 2()-2()

n(2) = 0.01002-0.0001 = 0.00992 /

(2) = 0.00992*18 = 0.17856 /

2. . = n*

(24) = 0.00010*28 = 0.0028 /

(26) = 0.01380*30 = 0.414 /

(36) = 0.00078*42 = 0.03276 /

(38) = 0.00080*44 = 0.0352 /

(H2O) = 0.01002*18 = 0.18036 /

(4) = 0.0034*16 = 0.0544 /

(24) = 0.0084*28 = 0.2352 /

(26) = 0.0046*30 = 0.138 /

(36) = 0.00045*42 = 0.0189 /

(46) = 0.00019*54 = 0.01026 /

(66) = 0.00008*78 = 0.00624 /

(410)= 0.00010*58 = 0.0058 /

() = 0.0001*28 = 0.0028 /

( ).

n(C) = 2*n(24)+2*n(26)+3*n(36)+3*n(38) =

2*0.00010+2*0.01380+3*0.00078+3*0.00080=0.03254 /

n(C) = n(4)+2*n(24)+2*n(26)+3*n(36)+4*n(46)+6*n(66)+

+4*n(410)+n() = 0.0034+2*0.0084+2*0.0046+3*0.00045+

+4*0.00019+6*0.00008+4*0.00010+0.0001 = 0.03249 /

n(C) = 0.03254-0.03249=0.00005 /

(C) = 0.00005*12=0.0006 /

3. 2. 2

.

(2) = 0.66512-0.65076 = 0.01436 /

n(2) = 0.01436/2 = 0.00718 /

4. .

┌──────────────────────┬──────────────────────┐

│ 䠠 │ 䠠 │ -

├──┬────────┬──────────┼──┬────────┬──────────┤ ,

│N ││ [/] │N ││ [/] │ -

├──┼────────┼──────────┼──┼────────┼──────────┤

│1 │ 24 │ 0.0028 │1 │ 4 │ 0.0544 │ .

│2 │ 26 │ 0.414 │2 │ 24 │ 0.2352 │

│3 │ 36 │ 0.03276 │3 │ 26 │ 0.138 │

│4 │ 38 │ 0.0352 │4 │ 36 │ 0.0189 │

│5 │ H2O │ 0.18036 │5 │ 46 │ 0.01026 │

│ │ │ │6 │ 66 │ 0.00624 │

│ │ │ │7 │ 410 │ 0.0058 │

│ │ │ │8 │ Π │ 0.0028 │

│ │ │ │9 │ 2Π │ 0.17856 │

│ │ │ │10│ 2 │ 0.01436 │

│ │ │ │11│ C │ 0.0006 │

├──┼────────┼──────────┼──┼────────┼──────────┤

│ │ │ 0.66512 │ │ │ 0.66512 │

└──┴────────┴──────────┴──┴────────┴──────────┘

@3.2

│ │

e f

│ │ │ │ │ │

─┬──d── │ │ │ │──d─ ┌───────┐ ┌────┐ ┌──────

│ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │

│ │ │ │ │ / e │ │ │ │ f

9.5젠 │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │

│ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │

│ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │

─┴── │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │

/ / │ │ │ │ │ │

│ │ │ │ │ │ │ │

│ └───────┘ │ │ │ │ │

└──────────────┘ └────┘ └────┘

Pf

│-VdP = Ltef+ [(wf)


2+(we)
2]/2 + g(zf-ze) + ef

Pe

0.0325 -

d - = 86

L - (70-78)

p -

s -

f-Pe = [0.0325*L*pw


2]/(2d)

d = 4*S/ = d

*V


n = 1*V1
n

n = ln[Pe/Pf]/ln[pe/pf]

m = pe*we*se = pf*wf*sf

sf = se = 3.1416*d


2/4 = 3.1416*0.086**2/4=0.005809

:

[1] n *[(Pe/pe)-(Pf/pf)] = [1](wf)2[1]-(we)2 + ef

n-1 2 e = Pe/ReTe

f = Pf/RfTf

n = ln[Pe/Pf]/ln[pe/pf] R = 8314/M

ef = [0.0325*l/d]*w


2/2

,

( = (pe+pf)/2 w = (we+wf)/2)

= [MiYi] Mf = c[MjYj]

┌────────┬─────────┬──────────┬────┬──────────┬──────────┐

││ ni │ Yi │ Mi │ Mi*Yi │ Ri │

├────────┼─────────┼──────────┼────┼──────────┼──────────┤

│24 │ 0.00010 │ 0.003922 │ 28 │ 0.109816 │ 296.9286 │

│26 │ 0.01380 │ 0.541176 │ 30 │16.235280 │ 277.1333 │

│36 │ 0.00078 │ 0.030588 │ 42 │ 1.284696 │ 197.9524 │

│38 │ 0.00080 │ 0.031373 │ 44 │ 1.380412 │ 188.9545 │

│H2O │ 0.01002 │ 0.392941 │ 18 │ 7.072938 │ 461.8889 │

│ │ │ │ │ │ │

│ │ 0.02550 │ 1.000000 │ │ │ │

│ │ │ │ │ Me │ Re │

│ │ │ │ │ 26.0832 │ 318.7492 │

└────────┴─────────┴──────────┴────┴──────────┴──────────┘

┌────────┬─────────┬──────────┬────┬──────────┬──────────┬────────┐

││ ni │ Yi │ Mi │ Mi*Yi │ Ri │ pj │

├────────┼─────────┼──────────┼────┼──────────┼──────────┼────────┤

│4 │ 0.00340 │ 0.098780 │ 16 │ 1.580480 │ 519.6250 │ 0.6068 │

│24 │ 0.00840 │ 0.244044 │ 28 │ 6.833232 │ 296.9286 │ 1.0619 │

│26 │ 0.00460 │ 0.133643 │ 30 │ 4.009290 │ 277.1333 │ 1.1378 │

│36 │ 0.00045 │ 0.013074 │ 42 │ 0.549108 │ 197.9524 │ 1.5929 │

│46 │ 0.00019 │ 0.005520 │ 54 │ 0.298080 │ 153.9630 │ 2.0480 │

│66 │ 0.00008 │ 0.002324 │ 78 │ 0.181272 │ 106.5897 │ 2.9582 │

│410 │ 0.00010 │ 0.002905 │ 58 │ 0.168490 │ 143.3448 │ 2.1997 │

│Π │ 0.00010 │ 0.002905 │ 28 │ 0.081340 │ 296.9286 │ 1.0619 │

│2Π │ 0.00992 │ 0.288205 │ 18 │ 5.187690 │ 461.8889 │ 0.6827 │

│2 │ 0.00718 │ 0.208600 │ 2 │ 0.417200 │4157.0000 │ 0.0759 │

│ │ │ │ │ │ │ │

│ │ 0.03442 │ 1.000000 │ │ │ │ │

│ │ │ │ │ Mf │ Rf │pf /


3│

│ f │ │ │ │ 19.30618 │ 430.6393 │ 0.7322 │

└────────┴─────────┴──────────┴────┴──────────┴──────────┴────────┘

:

wf = m/sf/pf = 0.66512/(0.005809*0.7322) = 156.388 /

we = 58.033 /

pf = 0.7322 /


3

= 1.973 /


3

= 5.66

Lef = m((wf)


2-(we)
2)/2=0.66512*(156.388**2-58.618**2)/2=7029.45

@3.3 e-f

n*I = n*('298 + a*(T-To) + 0.5*b*(T+To)*(T-To))

:

T+To = 900+298 = 1198 K T-To = 900-298 = 602 K

┌────────┬─────┬───────┬──────┬─────────┬───────┬───────┬──────────┐

││ a │ ⠠ │h │Cph(T-To)│ n │ dH298 │I / │

├────────┼─────┼───────┼──────┼─────────┼───────┼───────┼──────────┤

│24 │11.32│0.12201│ 84.40│ 50808.84│0.00010│ 523000│ 573808.84│

│26 │ 5.75│0.17511│110.64│ 66605.28│0.01380│ -84670│ -18064.72│

│36 │12.44│0.18838│125.28│ 75418.56│0.00078│ 20410│ 95828.56│

│38 │ 1.72│0.27075│163.90│ 98667.89│0.00080│-103850│ -5182.11│

│H2O㠠 │30.00│0.01071│ 36.42│ 21924.84│0.01002│-241810│-219885.16│

└────────┴─────┴───────┴──────┴─────────┴───────┴───────┴──────────┘

n*I = -2324.58

:

T+To = 1110+298 = 1408 K T-To = 1110-298 = 812 K

┌──────┬──────┬───────┬──────┬─────────┬───────┬───────┬───────────┐

│- │ a │ ⠠ │h │Cph(T-To)│ n │ dH298 │I /│

├──────┼──────┼───────┼──────┼─────────┼───────┼───────┼───────────┤

│4 │ 14.32│0.07466│ 66.88│ 54306.56│0.00340│ -74850│ -20543.44 │

│24 │ 11.32│0.12201│ 97.22│ 78942.64│0.00840│ 52300│ 131242.64 │

│26 │ 5.75│0.17511│129.03│104772.36│0.00460│ -84670│ 20102.36 │

│36 │ 12.44│0.18838│145.06│117788.72│0.00045│ 20410│ 138198.72 │

│46 │ 8.08│0.27322│200.43│162749.16│0.00019│ 110160│ 272909.16 │

│66 │-21.09│0.40012│260.59│211599.08│0.00008│ 82930│ 294529.08 │

│410 │ 18.23│0.30356│231.94│188335.28│0.00010│-126150│ 62185.28 │

│Π │ 28.41│0.00410│ 31.30│ 25415.60│0.00010│-110530│ -85114.40 │

│2Π │ 30.00│0.01071│ 37.54│ 30482.48│0.00992│-241810│-211327.52 │

│2 │ 27.28│0.00326│ 29.58│ 24018.96│0.00718│ 0│ 24018.96 │

└──────┴──────┴───────┴──────┴─────────┴───────┴───────┴───────────┘

n*I = -663.54

Qef = -663.54-(-2324.58) = 1661.04

Qef = Qef + Lef = 1661.04+7.03 = 1668 ( . )

@3.4 .

(ni*Exi) + (Qef) + L(t)ef = (nj*Exj) + Def

(Qef) = Qef*(1-Toc/Tcp)= 1668*(1-298.15/1001.34)=1167.6

Tcp = (Tf-Te)/ln(Tf/Te) = (1110-900)/ln(1110/900)=1001.34 K

= [(nj*Exj) - (ni*Exi)]/(Qef)

Ex = Ex'298 + Cph(T-To) - Toc*Cps*ln(T/To) + Toc*R*ln(P/Po)

To = 298

T = T = 900

h = a + 0.5b * (T+To)

Cps = a + b * [(T-To)/ln(T/To)]

T+To = 298+900 = 1198 K

T-To = 900-298 = 602

(T-To)/ln(T/To) = (900-298)/(ln(900/298)) = 544.65 K

Toc*ln(T/To) = 298*ln(900/298) = 329.38 K

┌────────┬─────┬───────┬───────┬───────┬────────────┬──────────────┐

││ a │ ⠠ │h │Cps │Cph(T-To) │TocCpsln(T/To)│

├────────┼─────┼───────┼───────┼───────┼────────────┼──────────────┤

│24 │11.32│0.12201│ 84.40 │ 77.77 │ 50808.84 │ 25615.88 │

│26 │ 5.75│0.17511│110.64 │101.12 │ 66605.28 │ 33306.91 │

│36 │12.44│0.18838│125.28 │115.04 │ 75418.56 │ 37891.88 │

│38 │ 1.72│0.27075│163.90 │149.18 │ 98667.89 │ 49136.91 │

│H2O㠠 │30.00│0.01071│ 36.42 │ 35.83 │ 21924.84 │ 11801.69 │

└────────┴─────┴───────┴───────┴───────┴────────────┴──────────────┘

┌────────┬────────────┬────────┬────────┬─────────────┬────────────┐

││


'K/│ n(i) │ Y(i) │ln[PYi]*Toc*R│Ex K/│

├────────┼────────────┼────────┼────────┼─────────────┼────────────┤

│24 │ 1360000 │0.00010 │0.003922│ -9421.26 │ 1375771.70 │

│26 │ 1494000 │0.01380 │0.541176│ 2792.28 │ 1530090.65 │

│36 │ 2001000 │0.00078 │0.030588│ -4329.70 │ 2034196.98 │

│38 │ 2150000 │0.00080 │0.031373│ -4266.90 │ 2195264.08 │

│H2O㠠 │ 8600 │0.01002 │0.392941│ 1998.85 │ 20722.00 │

│  │ │ │ │ │ │

│ │ │0.02550 │1.000000│ │ │

└────────┴────────────┴────────┴────────┴─────────────┴────────────┘

o = [n(i)*Ex(i)] = 24803.34

Ex = Ex'298 + Cph(T-To) - Toc*Cps*ln(T/To) + Toc*R*ln(P/Po)

To = 298

T = Tf = 1110

h = a + 0.5b * (T+To)

Cps = a + b * [(T-To)/ln(T/To)]

T+To = 298+1110 = 1408 K

T-To = 1110-298 = 812

(T-To)/ln(T/To) = (1110-298)/(ln(1110/298)) = 619.85 K

Toc*ln(T/To) = 298*ln(1110/298) = 390.38 K

┌────────┬──────┬───────┬──────┬───────┬────────────┬──────────────┐

││ a │ ⠠ │h │Cps │Cph(T-To) │TocCpsln(T/To)│

├────────┼──────┼───────┼──────┼───────┼────────────┼──────────────┤

│4 │ 14.32│0.07466│ 66.88│ 60.60 │ 54306.56 │ 23657.03 │

│24 │ 11.32│0.12201│ 97.22│ 86.95 │ 78942.64 │ 33943.54 │

│26 │ 5.75│0.17511│129.03│114.29 │ 104772.36 │ 44616.53 │

│36 │ 12.44│0.18838│145.06│129.21 │ 117788.72 │ 50441.00 │

│46 │ 8.08│0.27322│200.43│177.44 │ 162749.16 │ 69269.03 │

│66 │-21.09│0.40012│260.59│226.92 │ 211599.08 │ 88585.03 │

│410 │ 18.23│0.30356│231.94│206.39 │ 188335.28 │ 80570.53 │

│Π │ 28.41│0.00410│ 31.30│ 30.95 │ 25415.60 │ 12082.26 │

│2Π │ 30.00│0.01071│ 37.54│ 36.64 │ 30482.48 │ 14303.52 │

│2 │ 27.28│0.00326│ 29.58│ 29.30 │ 24018.96 │ 11438.13 │

└────────┴──────┴───────┴──────┴───────┴────────────┴──────────────┘

┌────────┬────────────┬────────┬────────┬─────────────┬────────────┐

││


'K/│ n(i) │ Y(i) │ln[pYi]*Toc*R│Ex K/│

├────────┼────────────┼────────┼────────┼─────────────┼────────────┤

│4 │ 830000 │0.00340 │0.009878│ -2632.75 │ 858016.78 │

│24 │ 1360000 │0.00840 │0.024404│ -390.77 │ 1404608.33 │

│26 │ 1494000 │0.00460 │0.013364│ -1883.46 │ 1552272.37 │

│36 │ 2001000 │0.00045 │0.001307│ -7645.59 │ 2060702.13 │

│46 │ 2500000 │0.00019 │0.000552│ -9782.94 │ 2583697.19 │

│66 │ 3432000 │0.00008 │0.000232│ -11927.34 │ 3543086.71 │

│410 │ 2803000 │0.00010 │0.000291│ -11374.33 │ 2899390.42 │

│Π │ 275400 │0.00010 │0.000291│ -11374.33 │ 277359.01 │

│2Π │ 8600 │0.00992 │0.028820│ 21.51 │ 24800.47 │

│2 │ 235000 │0.00718 │0.020860│ -779.77 │ 246801.06 │

│ │ │0.03442 │1.000000│ │ │

└────────┴────────────┴────────┴────────┴─────────────┴────────────┘

o = [n(j)*Ex(j)] = 25893.81

() = [(ni*Exi) - (ni*Exi)]/(Qef)

() = (25893.81-24803.34)/1167.6 = 0.934

Def = (ni*Exi)-(nj*Exj)+(Qef)+Lef

Def = 24803.34-25893.81+1167.6+7.03=84.16

@3.5

(nj*Sj) - (ni*Si) = Qef/Tcp + S

S = S298 + Cps*ln(T/To) - R*ln(P/Po)

Qef = 1668 򠠠 Tcp = 1001.34 K

ln(T/To) = ln(900/298) = 1.105

R*ln(P/Po) = 8.314*ln(5.66/1) = 14.41 /

┌────────┬─────┬───────┬───────┬───────┬─────────┬───────┬─────────┐

││ a │ ⠠ │ n │Cps │Cp*lnT/To│ S │ S*n │

├────────┼─────┼───────┼───────┼───────┼─────────┼───────┼─────────┤

│24 │11.32│0.12201│0.00010│ 77.77 │ 85.94 │ 290.98│ 0.02910 │

│26 │ 5.75│0.17511│0.01380│101.12 │ 111.74 │ 326.82│ 4.51012 │

│36 │12.44│0.18838│0.00078│115.04 │ 127.12 │ 379.65│ 0.29613 │

│38 │ 1.72│0.27075│0.00080│149.18 │ 164.85 │ 420.35│ 0.33628 │

│H2O㠠 │30.00│0.01071│0.01002│ 35.83 │ 39.59 │ 213.90│ 2.14328 │

│ࠠ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ 7.31491 │

└────────┴─────┴───────┴───────┴───────┴─────────┴───────┴─────────┘

ln(T/To) = ln(1110/298) = 1.315

R*ln(P/Po) = 8.314*ln(3.5/1) = 10.416 /*

┌────────┬──────┬───────┬───────┬───────┬────────┬───────┬─────────┐

││ a │ ⠠ │ n(i) │Cps │CplnT/To│ S │ S*n │

├────────┼──────┼───────┼───────┼───────┼────────┼───────┼─────────┤

│4 │ 14.32│0.07466│0.00340│ 60.60 │ 79.69 │ 255.54│ 0.86884 │

│24 │ 11.32│0.12201│0.00840│ 86.95 │ 114.34 │ 323.37│ 2.71631 │

│26 │ 5.75│0.17511│0.00460│114.29 │ 150.29 │ 369.36│ 1.69906 │

│36 │ 12.44│0.18838│0.00045│129.21 │ 169.91 │ 426.43│ 0.19189 │

│46 │ 8.08│0.27322│0.00019│177.44 │ 233.33 │ 501.65│ 0.09531 │

│66 │-21.09│0.40012│0.00008│226.92 │ 298.46 │ 557.24│ 0.04458 │

│410 │ 18.23│0.30356│0.00010│206.39 │ 271.47 │ 571.17│ 0.05712 │

│Π │ 28.41│0.00410│0.00010│ 30.95 │ 40.73 │ 227.86│ 0.02279 │

│2Π │ 30.00│0.01071│0.00992│ 36.64 │ 48.18 │ 226.48│ 2.24668 │

│2 │ 27.28│0.00326│0.00718│ 29.30 │ 38.53 │ 158.63│ 1.13896 │

│ࠠ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ 9.08167 │

└────────┴──────┴───────┴───────┴───────┴────────┴───────┴─────────┘

S = (nj*Sj) - (ni*Si) - Qef/Tcp

S = 9.08167-7.31491-1668/1001.34 = 0.10086 /(*)

Def = Toc*S = 298*0.10086=30.05628

B4 .

1 /

@4.1

ࠠ . .

┌─────┬─────┬─────┬─────┬─────┬─────┬─────┬─────┬────────┬────────┐

│4 │24 │38 │410│512│ 2 │ N2 │2 │[/


3]│Q /3│

├─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼────────┼────────┤

│89.67│ 5.2 │1.70 │0.50 │0.10 │0.03 │ 2.7 │ 0.1 │ 0.799 │ 37.4 │

└─────┴─────┴─────┴─────┴─────┴─────┴─────┴─────┴────────┴────────┘

1.03

0.89674 + 0.05224 + 0.01738 + 0.005410 + 0.001512 +

0.00032 + 8.0685N2 + 0.0012 + 2.1387O2 = 1.07772 + 1.99942

+ 0.06232 + 8.0685N2

n(2) = 0.8967+2*0.052+3*0.017+0.02+0.005+0.001 = 1.0777

n(H2O) = (0.8967*2+2*0.052+0.017*4+0.005*5+0.001*6+0.003)= 1.9994

n(O2) = 1.03*(1.0777-0.001+1.9994/2) =2.1387

n(N2) = 3.76*2.1387+0.027 = 8.0685

-

.

2 = + 0.52 2 = + 0.52 - 2

1- 0.5 1-󠠠 󠠠 0.5 - 2

0.89674 + 0.05224 + 0.01738 + 0.005410 + 0.001512 +

+0.00032 + 8.0685N2 + 0.0012 + 2.13872 = 1.0777(1-)2 +

+1.0777() + 0.5389()2 + 1.9994(1-)2 + 1.9994() +

+0.9997()2 + 0.06232 + 8.0685N2

2 2

= 1.0777+1.9994+0.0623+8.0685=11.2079

Y(2) = 1.0777/11.2079=0.09615 (2)=100*0.09622=9.615

Y(2) = 1.9967/11.2079=0.17815 (2)=100*0.17828=17.815

@4.2 . .

Q = -

( )

Q = 0

2 3 -

2 2 (. )

┌────┬──────────────────┬───────────────────┐

│[]│((2)=9.615)│((2)=17.815)│ -

├────┼──────────────────┼───────────────────┤ -

│1873│ 0.0151 │ 0.0052 │ -

│2073│ 0.046 │ 0.0147 │ 堠

│2173│ 0.077 │ 0.0243 │

│2273│ 0.126 │ 0.0351 │ :

│2373│ 0.184 │ 0.0528 │

└────┴──────────────────┴───────────────────┘

x() = 2.42377-2.5791*10


-3*+6.9086*10
-7*
2

y() = 0.03511+3.06377*10


-5*-7.31057*10
-9*
2-4.0555*10
-11*
3+

+1.667*10


-14*
4

==298.15

0.8967*I(4)+0.052*I(24)+0.017*I(38)+0.005*I(410)+0.001*

*I(512)+0.0003*I(2)+8.0685*I(N2)+0.001*I(2)+2.1387*I(2)=

0.8967*-74.85+0.052*52.30+0.017*-103.85+0.005*-126.15+0.001*-173.1+

+0.0003*0+8.0685*0+0.001*-393.51+2.1387*0 = -67.3612 /

==? x(T),y(T) .

1.0777(1-)*I(2) + 1.0777()*I() + 0.53890()*I(2) +

1.9994(1-)*I(2) + 1.9994()*I() + 0.9997()*I(2) +

0.0623*I(2) + 8.0685*I(N2) = nj*Ij

I(2) = -393510+(44.14+0.5*0.00904*(T+298))*(T-298) /

I() = -110530+(28.41+0.5*0.00410*(T+298))*(T-298) /

I(2) = -241810+(30.00+0.5*0.01071*(T+298))*(T-298) /

I() = 42100+(29.00+0.5*0.00400*(T+298))*(T-298) /

I(2) = 0+(27.28+0.5*0.00326*(T+298))*(T-298) /

I(2) = 0+(31.66+0.5*0.00339*(T+298))*(T-298) /

I(N2) = 0+(27.28+0.5*0.00427*(T+298))*(T-298) /

(nj*Ij)-(ni*Ii)=F(T) -

= 2220

@4.3

/ .

0.8967*Ex(4) + 0.052*Ex(24) + 0.017*Ex(38) + 0.005*Ex(410)+

+ 0.001 *Ex(512) + 0.0003*Ex(2) + 8.0685*Ex(N2) + 0.001*Ex(2)+

+ 2.1387*Ex(2) = 1.0777(1-)*Ex(2) + 1.0777()*Ex() +

+ 0.5389()*Ex(2) + 1.9994(1-)*Ex(2) + 1.9994()*Ex() +

+ 0.9997()*Ex(2) + 0.0623*Ex(2) + 8.0685*Ex(N2) + dEx

Ex = Ex'298 + Cph(T-To) - Toc*Cps*ln(T/To) + Toc*R*ln(P/Po)

298'15

-

:

Ex() = Ex'298 + Toc*R*ln(P/Po) / = Y Y = n(i)/ n(i)

Toc*R = 298.15*8.314=2478.8191 /

┌────────┬────────────┬────────┬────────┬─────────────┬────────────┐

││


'K/│ n(i) │ Y(i) │ln[Yi]*Toc*R │Ex K/│

├────────┼────────────┼────────┼────────┼─────────────┼────────────┤

│4 │ 830000 │ 0.8967 │0.080204│ -6254.5 │ 823745.5 │

│24 │ 1360000 │ 0.052 │0.004651│ -13312.9 │ 1346687.1 │

│38 │ 2150000 │ 0.017 │0.001521│ -16083.5 │ 2133916.5 │

│410 │ 2803000 │ 0.005 │0.000447│ -19119.0 │ 2783881.0 │

│512 │ 3455000 │ 0.001 │0.000089│ -23119.6 │ 3431880.4 │

│2 │ 235000 │ 0.0003 │0.000027│ -26076.4 │ 208923.6 │

│C2 │ 20100 │ 0.001 │0.000089│ -23119.6 │ -3019.6 │

│2 │ 3950 │ 2.1387 │0.191294│ -4099.8 │ -149.8 │

│N2 │ 700 │ 8.0685 │0.721678│ -808.5 │ -108.5 │

│  │ │ │ │ │ │

│ │ │ 11.1802│1.000000│ │ │

│ │ │ │ │ │ │

│ │ │ 0.973 │ │ │ │

└────────┴────────────┴────────┴────────┴─────────────┴────────────┘

o =[n(i)*Ex(i)] = 861172.033 /

Ex = Ex'298 + Cph(T-To) - Toc*Cps*ln(T/To) + Toc*R*ln(P/Po)

To = 298

T = T = 2220

h = a + 0.5b * (T+To)

Cps = a + b * [(T-To)/ln(T/To)]

T+To = 298+2220=2518K

T-To = 2220-298=1922

(T-To)/ln(T/To) = (2220-298)/(ln(2220/298)) = 957.091

Toc*ln(T/To) = 298*ln(2220/298) = 598.44

x() = 0.1031 y() = 0.0283

┌────────┬─────┬───────┬───────┬───────┬────────────┬──────────────┐

││ a │ ⠠ │h │Cps │Cph(T-To) │TocCpsln(T/To)│

├────────┼─────┼───────┼───────┼───────┼────────────┼──────────────┤

│Π │28.41│0.00410│33.3997│32.2361│ 64194.2234 │ 19291.3717 │

│2 │44.14│0.00904│55.1417│52.5760│105982.3474 │ 31463.5814 │

│2 │27.28│0.00326│31.2474│30.3222│ 60057.5028 │ 18146.0174 │

│N2 │27.28│0.00427│32.4766│31.2647│ 62420.0252 │ 18710.0471 │

│O2 │31.46│0.00339│35.5856│34.6235│ 68395.5232 │ 20720.0873 │

│H2O㠠 │30.00│0.01071│43.0341│39.9944│ 82711.5402 │ 23934.2487 │

│OH │29 │0.00400│33.8680│32.7327│ 65094.2960 │ 19588.5570 │

└────────┴─────┴───────┴───────┴───────┴────────────┴──────────────┘

,

(),() , .

┌────────┬────────────┬────────┬────────┬─────────────┬────────────┐

││


'K/│ n(i) │ Y(i) │ln[Yi]*Toc*R │Ex K/│

├────────┼────────────┼────────┼────────┼─────────────┼────────────┤

│Π │ 275400 │ 0.1111 │0.009891│ -10057.7122 │ 310245.1395│

│2 │ 20100 │ 0.9033 │0.080421│ -5491.6787 │ 89127.0873│

│2 │ 235000 │ 0.0283 │0.002520│ -13036.9554 │ 263874.5300│

│N2 │ 700 │ 8.0685 │0.718343│ -720.7708 │ 43689.2073│

│O2 │ 3950 │ 0.1215 │0.010817│ -9862.7214 │ 41762.7145│

│H2O㠠 │ 8600 │ 1.9428 │0.172969│ -3823.0497 │ 63554.2418│

│OH │ 157000 │ 0.0566 │0.005039│ -11527.1476 │ 190978.5914│

│  │ │ │ │ │ │

│ │ │ 11.2321│1.000000│ │ │

└────────┴────────────┴────────┴────────┴─────────────┴────────────┘

o =[n(j)*Ex(j)]=614307.4904 /

dEx =Ex()-Ex()=861172.033-614307.4904=246864.5426 /

() = Ex()/Ex() = 614307.4904/861172.033 = 0.7133


B5 .

@ 5.1

Qp = n*q() + n*Cp()*(T1-To) + nl*Cp(l)*(T1-To)

1 = = 298

2 = = 1271 .

1 = 2 = = 1

Q() = 0.08*Qef

nj -

.

Qp = Qef + 0.08*Qef + n*(nj*C{2})*(T2-To)

n = 1.08*Qef/(q()-(nj)*(Yj*Cp(j))*(T2-To)

T+To = 298+1271 = 1569 K

T-To = 1271-298 = 973

(T-To)/ln(T/To) = (973)/(ln(1271/298)) = 671 K

Toc*ln(T/To) = 298*ln(1271/298) = 432.1 K

┌────────┬─────┬───────┬───────┬───────┬────────────┬──────────────┐

││ a │ ⠠ │h │Cps │Cph(T-To) │TocCpsln(T/To)│

├────────┼─────┼───────┼───────┼───────┼────────────┼──────────────┤

│2 │44.14│0.00904│ 51.36 │ 50.30 │ 49973.28 │ 21734.63 │

│N2 │27.28│0.00427│ 30.69 │ 30.19 │ 29861.37 │ 13045.10 │

│O2 │31.46│0.00339│ 34.17 │ 33.77 │ 33247.41 │ 14592.02 │

│H2O㠠 │30.00│0.01071│ 38.56 │ 37.39 │ 37518.88 │ 16156.22 │

└────────┴─────┴───────┴───────┴───────┴────────────┴──────────────┘

┌────────┬────────────┬────────┬────────┬─────────────┬────────────┐

││


'K/│ n(i) │ Y(i) │ln[Yi]*Toc*R │Ex K/│

├────────┼────────────┼────────┼────────┼─────────────┼────────────┤

│2 │ 20100 │ 1.0777 │0.096155│ -5804.88 │ 42533.77 │

│N2 │ 700 │ 8.0685 │0.719894│ -814.67 │ 16701.60 │

│O2 │ 3950 │ 0.0623 │0.005559│ -12870.86 │ 9734.53 │

│H2O㠠 │ 8600 │ 1.9994 │0.178392│ -4272.92 │ 25689.74 │

│  │ │ │ │ │ │

│ │ │11.2079 │1.000000│ │ │

└────────┴────────────┴────────┴────────┴─────────────┴────────────┘

o = [n(j)*Ex(j)]=232566.03 /

(nj)*(Yj*Cp(j))*(T2-To) = 11.2079*34.1*973=371870.28

n = 1.08*Qef/(q()-(nj)*(Yj*Cp(j))*(T2-To)

n = 1.08*1668/(837760-371870.28)=0.00387 /

@ 5.2

() = [1][{f}nj*Exj - {e}ni*Exi]

[{1}Yi*Exi - {2}Yj*Exj]*n

()= (25893.81-24803.34)/(0.00388*(861172.03-232566.03))=0.447

B6

() = (/)*(.)*()

(/) = ()/((.)*())

(/) = 0.447/(0.7133*0.934) = 0.671

@ B7 --

@ B .

-l─── ┌───┐ │

┌──┘ └──┐ a-│-a

│ ┌──┼───────────┘ 1

│ │ ┌──────────────>─────────────────────────┼─┐

│ / │ │ ┌──────────<─────┐ 1 │

│ ──┼───────────┐ │ │

-y─── │ │ │ │ b-│-b │ │

│ ┌──┼───<───┼───│───────────────────┐ │

│ │ │ │ │ │ │ │

│ / │ │ │ ꠠ │ │ │ │

│ ──┼───>───┼───│────┐ │ │ │

│ │ │ │ d │ │ │ │ │

-x─── │ ┌──┼─────────┼─┤ │ │ │ │

│ │ │ │ d │ │ │ │ │

│ / │ │ │ │ │ │ ┌<─┐ │ │

│ │ │ │ ┌──────┴─┴┐ │ │ 񠠠 │

│ / │ │ │ ││ │ ┌─┼─┐ │/│

│ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ ^ │ │ │

│ / │ │ │ └─┬───────┘ │ │ │ │ ─ ─ ─ ─ ─│ │

│ │ │ │ o─│─o │ └─┬─┘ │ │

┌───────┘ / e└─┼───┼──┐ f ┌──┴─┐ g │ │ │

│ ─┼┐ │ │┌─┼──┼──┤//├──┼─ │ │ │

│ ┌──────┐e│ └//┘│ │ f /└──┬─┘ g │ │ 2─│─2

│ │ ├┐│ │┌┤ p─│─p │ │ │

│ │ ├┘│ │└┤ │ │ │2'┌────────┐ │

│ │ ├┐│ │┌┤ └─><────>─┘ └┼─┤┌///┐├──┘

│ │ ├┘└──────┘└┤ x = 0.98 2'└┼──────┼┘

└────────┴──────┴──────────┘ │ │

┌──────────┬──────┬──────┬──────┬──────┬──────┬──────┬──────┬──────┐

│ │ 1 │ 2s │ 2' │ 4 │ o │ p │ f │ g │

├──────────┼──────┼──────┼──────┼──────┼──────┼──────┼──────┼──────┤

│ [] │ 120 │ 0.05 │ 0.05 │ 120 │ 120 │ 120 │ 3.5 │ 3.5 │

├──────────┼──────┼──────┼──────┼──────┼──────┼──────┼──────┼──────┤

│T [K] │ 813 │ 306 │ 306 │ 468 │ 596 │ 596 │ 1110 │ 673 │

├──────────┼──────┼──────┼──────┼──────┼──────┼──────┼──────┼──────┤

│h [/]│ 3465 │ 2130 │ 137 │ 834 │ 1482 │ 2665 │ │ │

└──────────┴──────┴──────┴──────┴──────┴──────┴──────┴──────┴──────┘

@7.1 - .

Qfg = [n(j)*I(j)] - [n(j)*I(j)]

Qop = [n(j)*I(j)] - [n(j)*I(j)]

-Qfg = Qop + Q

Q .

Y(j) = Y(i) n(i) = n(j)

Po = Pp = 120

Pf = Pg = 3.5

To = Tp = 596 K

Tg = 673.15 K

Qfg = ([n(i)*I(j)] - [n(i)*I(i)])

Qop = m()*[h(p) - h'(o)]

h'(o) = 353.9 / = 1481.71 /

h" = 642.5 /

h(p) = h"*x + h'(a)*(1-x) = 642.5*0.98+343.9*0.02=636.53 /

h(p) = 636.53 / = 2665.02 /

e-f

[n(i)*I(i)] = -663.54

[n(i)*I(j)] = n(j)*[dH298 + Cp(j)*(Tg-To)]

Tg+To = 673+298 = 971 K Tg-To = 673-298 = 375 K

┌──────┬──────┬───────┬──────┬─────────┬───────┬───────┬───────────┐

│- │ a │ ⠠ │h │Cph(T-To)│ n │ dH298 │I /│

├──────┼──────┼───────┼──────┼─────────┼───────┼───────┼───────────┤

│4 │ 14.32│0.07466│ 66.88│ 25080.00│0.00340│ -74850│ -49770.00 │

│24 │ 11.32│0.12201│ 97.22│ 36457.50│0.00840│ 52300│ 88757.50 │

│26 │ 5.75│0.17511│129.03│ 48386.25│0.00460│ -84670│ -36283.75 │

│36 │ 12.44│0.18838│145.06│ 54397.50│0.00045│ 20410│ 74807.50 │

│46 │ 8.08│0.27322│200.43│ 75161.25│0.00019│ 110160│ 185321.25 │

│66 │-21.09│0.40012│260.59│ 97721.25│0.00008│ 82930│ 180651.25 │

│410 │ 18.23│0.30356│231.94│ 86977.50│0.00010│-126150│ -39172.50 │

│Π │ 28.41│0.00410│ 31.30│ 11737.50│0.00010│-110530│ -98792.50 │

│2Π │ 30.00│0.01071│ 37.54│ 14077.50│0.00992│-241810│-227732.50 │

│2 │ 27.28│0.00326│ 29.58│ 11092.50│0.00718│ 0│ 11092.50 │

└──────┴──────┴───────┴──────┴─────────┴───────┴───────┴───────────┘

[n(i)*I(j)] = -1700.52

Qfg = ([n(i)*I(j)]-[n(i)*I(i)])=-1700.52+663.54= -1037

m() = -Qfg/[h(p)-h'(o)] = 1037/(2665.02-1481.71) = 0.87636 /c

@7.2 .

- - -

() = 0.92 () = 0.6

[1]7.2.1 1-2.

) 頠 dq = 0 s = 0 d = 0

q(1,2s) = h(2s) - h(1) + l(1,2s)

l(1,2s) = h(1) - h(2s) = 3465-2130 = 1335 /

)

() = [h(1)-h(2d)]/[h(1)-h(2s)]

h(2d) = h(1)-()*[h(1)-h(2s)] = 3465-0.92*1335 = 2236.8 /

[1]7.2.2 2-2'.

) 頠 dP = 0 l(1,2s) = 0 l(1,2d) = 0

q(2,2') = h(2') - h(2s) + l(1,2s) = 137-2130 = -1993 /

)

q(2,2') = h(2d') - h(2d) + l(1,2d)

h(2') = Cp(H2O)*t = 4.185*32.81 = 137.3 /

h(2d') = q(2,2') + h(2d) = -1993+2236.8 = 243.8 /

[1]7.2.3 2'-4.

) 頠 dq = 0 s = 0 d = 0

q(2',4s) = h(4s) - h(2') + l(2',4s)

l(2',4s) = h(2') - h(4s) = 137.3-834 = -696.7 /

)

() = [h(2')-h(4s)]/[h(2d')-h(4d)]

h(4d) = h(2d')-[h(2')-h(4s)]/()=243.8+696.7/0.6=1405 /

[1]7.2.4 4-1.

) 頠 dP = 0 l(4s,1) = 0 l(4d,1) = 0

q(4s,1) = h(1) - h(4s) + l(4s,1) = 3465-834 = 2631 /

)

q(4d,1) = h(1) - h(4d) + l(4d,1) = 3465-1405 = 2060 /

[1]7.2.5

L = m()*l q = l

q = q(4,1)+q(2,2') = 2631-1993 = 638 /

l = l(1,2)+l(2',4) = 1335-697 = 638 /

L = 0.87636*638 = 559

(th) = l/q(4,1) = 638/2631 = 0.2425

(Ex) = l/Ex[q(4,1)] = 638/1322 = 0.4826

Ex[q(4,1)] = q(4,1)*(1-Toc/Tcp) = 2631*(1-298/599)=1322 /

Tcp = q(4,1)/(S(1)-S(4)) = 2631/(6.65-2.26) = 599 K

S(4) = Cp(H2O)*ln(T(4)/Tr) = 4.184*ln(468/273) = 2.26 /*K


B8

@8.1 .

n()*q*() = Q + n(.)*(.)*(2-)

Q = Q. = Q + Q

Q = [2.04*(2-)


0.25]*F*(2-)

Π = (+f)/2 + (30 40) = (900+1110)/2 + (3040)

Q = Cs*Hs*[(T2/100)


4 - (O/100)
4] Cs = 5.66 /
4

2 = 1271

= * = *[S(n-1)+d]*l

Hs


-

s - = 2*d

K - .

n -

d - 102

l - = 9.5

= 2*(0.65+0.21) = 1.72

┌─────┐ b = 2+S*sqrt(3)/2 = 2+2*0.102*sqrt(3)/2 = 2.177

/│ /│ l = 10

/ │ / │ h h = (n-1)*S+0.5s+2*d = 32*2*0.102+3*0.102=6.834

┌─────┐ │ n = n()/2 = F/(3.14*d*l*2)

│ └─│───┘ n = 206/(3.14*0.102*10*2) = 33

│ / │ /

│/ │/ l㠠 F = b*l+2*l*h+2*b*h

└─────┘ F = 2.177*10+2*10*6.834+2*2.177*6.834=188.2


b H = 1.72*(2*0.102*32+0.102)*9.5 = 108.33

F = F - H = 188.2-108.33 = 79.87

Hs = Ev/()*[H*Eh + *Ef*F]

() = 0.85

Eh = Ef = 0.9

a = 1.03

Ev = 2/(1+2.15*1.03) = 1-exp(-0.96/a) = 0.61

p = H/(H+F) = H/F = 79.87/188.2 = 0.424

= 1/[1+Ev/(1-Ev)*1/(Eh*p)] = 1/(1+0.61/(0.39*0.9*0.424)) = 0.196

Hs = 0.61/0.85*(108.33*0.9+0.196*0.9*79.87) = 80

Π = (900+1110)/2+40 = 1045

Q = 2.04*(1271-1045)**0.25*206*(1271-1045)=368500

Q = 5.66*80*(12.71**4-10.45**4) = 6416769

Q = Q + Q = 372.7+6416.8 = 6789.5

4*Qef = 1668*4 = 6672 < 6789.5


@8.2

[1]8.2.1

Ta = 378 K = 105 C

Tb = Td = 463 K = 190 C

Tc = 468 K = 195 C

Tk = 596 K = 323 C

Tl = 523 = 250

) l-y

Qab = [n(j)*I(j)] - [n(i)*I(i)] + Lab

Qyl = [n(j)*I(j)] - [n(i)*I(i)] + Lyl

Qab = - Qyl

b n(i) = n(j)

h = Cp(T-To)

┌────────┬─────┬───────┬───────┬────────┬────────┬─────────┐

││ a │ ⠠ │ n │ h(a) │ h(b) │h(b)-h(a)│

├────────┼─────┼───────┼───────┼────────┼────────┼─────────┤

│24 │11.32│0.12201│0.00010│ 6832.72│11260.24│ 4427.52 │

│26 │ 5.75│0.17511│0.01380│ 8441.83│14113.97│ 5672.14 │

│36 │12.44│0.18838│0.00078│ 9894.62│16403.13│ 6508.51 │

│38 │ 1.72│0.27075│0.00080│12120.36│20424.37│ 8304.01 │

│   │ │ │ │ │ │ │

│   │5.915│0.18038│0.01548│8694.75 │14537.00│ 5842.25 │

└────────┴─────┴───────┴───────┴────────┴────────┴─────────┘

Qab = [n(i)*dh(i)] = 90.44

┌────────┬─────┬───────┬───────┬────────┬────────┬──────────────┐

││ a │ ⠠ │h (l)│ n(i) │ Y(i) │h(l) /│

├────────┼─────┼───────┼───────┼────────┼────────┼──────────────┤

│2


│44.14│0.00904│ 47.85 │ 1.0777 │0.096155│ 10766.25 │

│N2


│27.28│0.00427│ 29.03 │ 8.0685 │0.719894│ 6531.75 │

│O2


│31.46│0.00339│ 32.85 │ 0.0623 │0.005559│ 7391.25 │

│H2O㠠


│30.00│0.01071│ 34.39 │ 1.9994 │0.178392│ 7737.75 │

│ 


│ │ │ │ │ │ │

│ │29.40│0.00587│ 31.82 │11.2079 │1.000000│ 7158.84 │

└────────┴─────┴───────┴───────┴────────┴────────┴──────────────┘

M() = 27.78 /

Cp() = [Y(i)*Cp(i)] = 34.1 /

(nj)*(Yj*Cp(j))*(T2-To) = 11.2079*34.1*973=371870.28

Qab = n()*[h(y)-h(l)] = n()*Cp()*[Ty-Tl]

Q𠠠 = m()*(h(1)-h(px)) = 0.87636*(3465-2665) = 701

n() = [1.08*(Qef+Q)]/[q(n)-(nj)*Cp()*(T2-Toc)]

n() = (1.08*(1668+701))/(837760-371870.28)=0.0055 /

n() = n()*(n(j))

n() = 0.0055*11.2079=0.06165 /

q(n) = Vm*Q() = 22.4*37400 = 837760 /

h(y) = Qab/n()+h(l)= 90.44/0.06165+7158.84=8625.83

Ty = 568 K

) -

m()*(h(k)-h(c)) = n()*(h(x)-h(y))

h(x) = m()(h(k)-h(c))/n() + h(y)

h(x) = 0.87636*4.186*(353.9-199.3)/(0.06165)+8625.83 = 17825.2

T(x) = 842 K

) -2

n()*(h(2)-h(x)) = n()*(h(e)-h(d))

h(d) = h(e) - n()*(h(2)-h(x))/n()

h(d) = 50262.03-0.06165*(33086.9-17825.2)/0.0255 = 13364.63 /*

T(d) = 515 K

[1]8.2.2 d.

──< 463 K>──┐ dq = 0

┌┴┐ dP = 0

│d├──< Td = 515 K >──

└┬┘

──< T=? >───┘

[n(i)I(i)] = [n(j)I(j)]

n()*h(b) + n()*h() = n()*h(d)

h() = [n()*h(d)-n()*h(b)]/n()

h() = (0.0255*13364.63-0.01548*14537)/0.01002 = 11553.42

T() = 628 K

P = 12

@8.3 .

= 35 /().

Q = *F*dTcp = [n(j)*I(j)] - [n(i)*I(i)] + L(de)

Q = [n()*(h(e)-h(d)]

Q = 0.0255*(50262.03-13364.63) = 940884

dTcp = [(T2-Te)-(Tx-Td)]/ln[(T2-Te)/(Tx-Td)]

dTcp = ((1271-900)-(842-515))/ln((1271-900)/(842-515)) = 348.54 K

tcp = (T2+Tx)/2 = (998+569)/2 = 784 C

F = Q/(*dTcp) = 940884/35/348.54 = 77.13

,

1.7-2 d. 4-6 .

d = 102 , l = 9.5 s = 200

n() = F/(3.1416*d*l) = 77.13/(3.1416*0.102*9.5)=25.34

5 5 .

.

alfa() = [alfa()+alfa()]

alfa() = 0.34*E*U0.6*d0.4

alfa() = 0.34*23.7*0.86**0.6/0.102**0.4 = 14 /().

102 [2] = 23.7

U = 4*(n()*())/f = 4*0.06165*27.78/8 = 0.86 /

f = (b-n(p)*d)*l = (1.352-5*0.102)*9.5 = 8

b = s(n(p)+1)+d+0.05 = 0.2*(5+1)+0.102+0.05 = 1.352

t = [t(e)+t(d)]/2 + 20 = (900+515)/2+20 = 728 K = 455 C

S = 3.49*s-4.1*d = 3.49*0.2-4.1*0.102 = 0.2798

'(2) = S*P~ = 0.2798*0.0962 = 0.027 *

P'(2) = S*P~ = 0.2798*0.1782 = 0.050 *

52 2970

alfa(2) = 11 /()

alfa(2) = 14 /()

alfa() = 25 /()

= 1.1*(alfa()+alfa()) = (25+14)*1.1 = 43 /()

F = Q/(*dTcp) = 940884/43/348.54 = 63

n() = F/(3.1416*d*l) = 63/(3.1416*0.102*9.5)=21

6 4 .

F = n()*(3.1416*d*l) = 24*3.1416*0.102*9.5 = 73


B

() = 0.934

() = 0.713

() = 0.447

/Π () = 0.671

,

45%.

( ). -

,

. -

.


B

1

┌────────┬────────────┬────────────┬────────────┬────────┬────────┐

││


'/│'/│ S /│ ࠠ │ *10
3 │

├────────┼────────────┼────────────┼────────────┼────────┼────────┤

│4 │ 830 │ -74.85 │ 186.27 │ 14.32 │ 74.66 │

├────────┼────────────┼────────────┼────────────┼────────┼────────┤

│24 │ 1360 │ 52.30 │ 219.45 │ 11.32 │ 122.01 │

├────────┼────────────┼────────────┼────────────┼────────┼────────┤

│26 │ 1494 │ -84.67 │ 229.49 │ 5.75 │ 175.11 │

├────────┼────────────┼────────────┼────────────┼────────┼────────┤

│36 │ 2001 │ 20.41 │ 266.94 │ 12.44 │ 188.38 │

├────────┼────────────┼────────────┼────────────┼────────┼────────┤

│38 │ 2150 │ -103.85 │ 269.91 │ 1.72 │ 270.75 │

├────────┼────────────┼────────────┼────────────┼────────┼────────┤

│46 │ 2500 │ 110.16 │ 278.74 │ 8.08 │ 273.22 │

├────────┼────────────┼────────────┼────────────┼────────┼────────┤

│410 │ 2803 │ -126.15 │ 310.12 │ 18.23 │ 303.56 │

├────────┼────────────┼────────────┼────────────┼────────┼────────┤

│66 │ 3432 │ 82.93 │ 269.20 │ -21.09 │ 400.12 │

├────────┼────────────┼────────────┼────────────┼────────┼────────┤

│Π │ 275.4 │ -110.53 │ 197.55 │ 28.41 │ 4.10 │

├────────┼────────────┼────────────┼────────────┼────────┼────────┤

│2 │ 20.1 │ -393.51 │ 213.66 │ 44.14 │ 9.04 │

├────────┼────────────┼────────────┼────────────┼────────┼────────┤

│2 │ 235 │ 0 │ 130.52 │ 27.28 │ 3.26 │

├────────┼────────────┼────────────┼────────────┼────────┼────────┤

│N2 │ 0.7 │ 0 │ 191.50 │ 27.28 │ 4.27 │

├────────┼────────────┼────────────┼────────────┼────────┼────────┤

│O2 │ 3.95 │ 0 │ 205.04 │ 31.46 │ 3.39 │

├────────┼────────────┼────────────┼────────────┼────────┼────────┤

│H2O㠠 │ 8.6 │ -241.81 │ 188.72 │ 30.00 │ 10.71 │

├────────┼────────────┼────────────┼────────────┼────────┼────────┤

│OH │ 157 │ 42.10 │ ── │ 29 │ 4.00 │

├────────┼────────────┼────────────┼────────────┼────────┼────────┤

│512 │ 3455 │ -173.1 │ ── │ ── │ ── │

└────────┴────────────┴────────────┴────────────┴────────┴────────┘


2 2 %

┌─────────┬───────────────────────────────────────────────────────┐

│ │ 2 , │

│ ├──────┬──────┬──────┬──────┬──────┬──────┬──────┬──────┤

│ T,C │ 4.9 │ 9.8 │ 14.7 │ 19.6 │ 29.4 │ 32.9 │ 49.0 │ 98.1 │

├─────────┼──────┼──────┼──────┼──────┼──────┼──────┼──────┼──────┤

│ 1500 │ 0.5 │ 0.5 │ 0.45 │ 0.4 │ 0.4 │ 0.4 │ 0.4 │ 0.4 │

│ 1600 │ 1.9 │ 1.5 │ 1.35 │ 1.3 │ 1.1 │ 0.95 │ 0.85 │ 0.7 │

│ 1700 │ 3.5 │ 2.8 │ 2.45 │ 2.2 │ 1.9 │ 1.75 │ 1.65 │ 1.3 │

│ 1800 │ 5.9 │ 4.6 │ 4.10 │ 3.7 │ 3.3 │ 3.0 │ 2.75 │ 2.2 │

│ 1900 │ 9.5 │ 7.6 │ 6.65 │ 6.1 │ 5.3 │ 4.9 │ 4.5 │ 3.6 │

│ 2000 │ 15.4 │ 12.5 │ 11.0 │ 10.0 │ 8.8 │ 8.0 │ 7.4 │ 6.0 │

│ 2100 │ 22.8 │ 18.3 │ 16.2 │ 14.9 │ 13.1 │ 12.0 │ 11.2 │ 9.0 │

│ 2200 │ 32.5 │ 27.0 │ 24.0 │ 22.0 │ 19.8 │ 18.0 │ 17.0 │ 13.5 │

│ 2300 │ 42.5 │ 35.9 │ 32.4 │ 30.0 │ 26.9 │ 24.8 │ 23.2 │ 19.0 │

│ 2400 │ 53.7 │ 46.6 │ 42.5 │ 39.6 │ 35.8 │ 33.3 │ 31.4 │ 26.0 │

│ 2500 │ 64.1 │ 56.9 │ 52.7 │ 49.7 │ 45.4 │ 42.6 │ 40.4 │ 34.0 │

└─────────┴──────┴──────┴──────┴──────┴──────┴──────┴──────┴──────┘

3 H2O %

┌─────────┬───────────────────────────────────────────────────────┐

│ │ H2O , │

│ ├──────┬──────┬──────┬──────┬──────┬──────┬──────┬──────┤

│ T,C │ 4.9 │ 9.8 │ 14.7 │ 19.6 │ 29.4 │ 32.9 │ 49.0 │ 98.1 │

├─────────┼──────┼──────┼──────┼──────┼──────┼──────┼──────┼──────┤

│ 1600 │ 0.8 │ 0.6 │ 0.55 │ 0.50 │ 0.46 │ 0.42 │ 0.38 │ 0.28 │

│ 1800 │ 2.25 │ 1.80 │ 1.57 │ 1.40 │ 1.25 │ 1.15 │ 1.05 │ 0.83 │

│ 1900 │ 3.80 │ 3.00 │ 2.55 │ 2.35 │ 2.10 │ 1.90 │ 1.70 │ 1.40 │

│ 2000 │ 5.35 │ 4.30 │ 3.70 │ 3.40 │ 2.95 │ 2.65 │ 2.50 │ 2.00 │

│ 2100 │ 7.95 │ 6.35 │ 5.60 │ 5.10 │ 4.55 │ 4.10 │ 3.70 │ 3.00 │

│ 2200 │ 11.5 │ 9.30 │ 8.15 │ 7.40 │ 6.50 │ 5.90 │ 5.40 │ 4.40 │

│ 2300 │ 15.4 │ 12.9 │ 11.4 │ 10.4 │ 9.10 │ 8.40 │ 7.70 │ 6.20 │

│ 2400 │ 21.0 │ 17.2 │ 15.3 │ 13.9 │ 12.2 │ 11.2 │ 10.4 │ 8.40 │

│ 2500 │ 26.8 │ 22.1 │ 19.7 │ 18.0 │ 15.9 │ 14.6 │ 13.7 │ 11.0 │

└─────────┴──────┴──────┴──────┴──────┴──────┴──────┴──────┴──────┘

1. .. .

.: , 1963.

2. . -

..

3. / .. . .: 1987.

B 1 ...................................................... 2 2 .... 3 3 .................. 4 3.1

 

 

 

! , , , .
. , :