. , , ,

,,,

:

. -334

..

: ..

1997

( ), , , , ( ), , .

, , : , , , , , .

, , , , .

, , - , ( ), , , , .

, , , , - . , . , , .

. , - . .

:

n -  , ;

n ;

n , , ;

n - ;

n 1:2000

1.

1.1

( ) . : - , ; - ͠ . , .

. . - , . . - .

, , , , , , , .

1.1

-

-

---

50

20

1

2

73

50

10

1

1

62

20

10

2

1

33

-

1 . 2.

1. 1 .

2 . 1 .

8

73

62

33

4

4

176

1.2

-

-

---

17

2

-

1

20

17

1

2

2

22

2

1

-

1

4

46

1.2

. 1.1 , .


͠ .



. 1.1.

(. . 1.1 ) : - ͠ . , - ; - ͠ ͠ , .. . ,   (   ) .

, , , . , ,

1.3.

, :

1.     - ; ; , ; .

2. - ( -1 -11 ) .

3. ⠠ : , , 250 - .

4. , ( ) ; 堠 ; ; .

5. .

6. ( ) .

2.

2.1

, . .2.1 .

.


 

.2.1. .

( ) . 11 , 22 .

. , 24 .

N. + E * N. >= 24 𠠠 ( 2.1 )

堠 E - ( E=1.5 )

20+10+3+20+10+3+1.5*(2+1+2+1)=75 > 24 𠠠

.

2.2

( Ln ) - ( Lnon ) .

L = Q/q4.*g4*l4 + Q/q8.*g8*l8 +l. ( 2.2 )

堠 Q - , ;

l -

q - , 4 8

q=q +q

g-

l-

q=43.7-

q=22.2- .

l=20.24 -

l=14.73- .

l=34

Lnon :720;850;1050;1250

L=(5600 / 71.2)*0.91*14.73+(5600 / 159.7)*0.09*20.24+34=1152.15

(1250 )

L=2*Lnon+1900=4400

- L-=2*Lnon+750=3250

L=Lnon+1150=2400

4300 .  I - , II -


-I


-II

Ϡ




-I



-II




2.3

. 2.2 , .

2.3.1

       1. ( ) . . , .

       2. , .

       3. . . , . - .

       4. , - . - - , , .

       5. , ( ) , ( ) . .

       6. , , . . . 50 .

: ; , ; .

2.3.2

. :

       1. ( ) - .

       2. , .

       3. - ( ) .

       4. .

       5. ( ) .

       6. , .

       7. , .

2- 6- .

3.

3.1

- . , , ( ) ( 500 ). - , + 1 ( 4 , .

3 5 500 .

12 , 42 , 50 , 60 .

( ) .

. - 6 , - 4 . ( ) - 10.6 , - 9.5 .

.

3.2 -

- .

m=t/i + 1 (3.1)

堠 m - -

t -

i - ࠠ

.

堠 t

t=t+t+t+t򠠠 (3.2)

堠 t,t - ,

t - -

( ) .

t - -

.

t :

t= t + l /16.7*V + (l + l)/16.7*V

堠 t - (0.15 )

16.7 - / /

l,l - - (1000 )

V,V - V=80/ V=40 /

t 30. t

t=0.5 * I.max (3.3)

t .max -

t= t +t0 + l/16.7*V

, ,

I.= (I.+Imin)/2 (3.4)

堠 I.- ;

Imin- (I min=8-10 ) 2 , - I .. I.(..)

I.(..)= (I.*I.)/(I.+I.) (3.5)

堠 I. ,I.- -

, .

I.(..) (3.1).

I.

I.= 1440 / (b* N.+e*N. ) (3.6)

堠 N. -

e - (e=1.8 );

N. -

b - ( b=1.15 )

, , 2 , 3 -

.

I. =1440 / (1.15*70 + 1.8*19 )= 12.55

I. =1440 / (1.15*60 +1.8*18 ) = 14.2

I. =1440 / (1.15*30 +1.8*3 ) =36.09

I. = (12.55+9) /2 = 10.76

I. = (14.2+9) /2 = 11.6

I. = (36.09+9) /2 = 22.55

I.(..)( )= (11.6*22.55 )/(11.6+22.55 )=7.66

t=0.15+1000/16.7*80+(1250+400+1000)/16.7*40=

=4.86

t.= 0.5*22.55=11.28

t=0.15 +1 +1250/16.7*30 = 3.65

t.=4.86+30+11.28+3.65=49.79

m=(49.79 / 7.66) +1 =8

: t.=0.5*10.76=5.38

t.=4.86+30+5.38+3.65=43.89

m=( 43.89 / 10.76 ) + 1 + 2=8

3.3

-

. -

:

     ; , 10%;

     ;

     ;

    

     , , .

, . ),),) 300 - 500

-

, , . ( ) . -

, - .

-

- , . , 50 - 60 .

:

    

     .

4- , 1 .

3.1

: 1.1* . -

.

3.1

1.

2

1

1267.365

1

1

1267.365

1

1

1267.365

2.

1

1

1267.365

1

1

1267.365

2

1

1267.365

3.

---

1

500

4.

---

1

500

5.

---

1

300

6.

---

1

300

10

3.4

:

    ;

   

   

    , ;

    Ѡ .

3.4.1 

:

     -2 - ;

     -1 - ;

     -3 - .

Ci=S.*Ji (3.7)

堠 S. - , . -

Ji - i- , 1 .

- .

3.2

3.2

S.

Ji

Ci

- 2

23 . .-

0.03

0.69

- 1

23 . .-

0.2

4.6

- 3

23 . .-

0.04

0.92

6.21=7

4 , .. . .

3.4.2

C=( N*t ) / (1440*a ) (3.8)

堠 N- , (

);

N=N.. +N.. +N..+N.. (3.9)

N = 84 + 6 + 5 + 25 = 120

t - (50 - 60 )

a - , -

- -

( 0.7 - 0.9 ).

C = 120*60 / 1440*0.9 = 5.55 = 6

2 ,

= / 2 : n = 6 / 2 = 3

,

,

.

2 ( ,

. -

:

E = S*106*a*g*g / 365*103 , 젠 (3.10)

堠 a - , -

⠠ ( 0.8 - 0.9 ) ;

g - 1*103 - ;

g - , -

( 0.6 - 0.9 ) .

= 31*106*0.8*0.96*0.8 / 365*103 = 52.176

:

..=30*E.*t.. , 3 (3.11)

..=30*.*t.. , 3 (3.12)

堠 t.. , t.. - ,⠠

( .-4-6 . ; . -2-4 . ).

..=30*52,176*6=9391,68 3

..=30*52,176*4=6261,12 3

( L ) :

L.=E../Pc. +Ϡ , 젠 (3.13)

堠 Pc. - 1 . ; 3

- , ;

3.3

9

14

18

P

15

36

62.5

10

11

12

L.=9391,68 /62,5 + 12 =162,27=163

3.4.3. ,

L..=N.*a*(l.+4 ) (3.14)

a- 10-12 %

L..=120*0,1*(33+4) =444

m..=L../l. . (3.15)

m..=444/150=2,96=3

3.4.4. ⠠ .

L.=N.*a.*l. 젠 (3.16)

a- , 15-20 %

L.=120*0,15*33=594

m.=L./l (3.17) .

l.- 250 - 300

m.=594/250=2,376=3


48 48

7

24 7


24

16 6 84

3.1 4

3.5

.

:

L.=F/B (3.18)

F- ,

B- ,

-18 / ; ( ) - 24 . 12 . 300 .

11,3 . ( 16 . ). / ----

-2,8 , -7,7 .

, . :

L.=N*L/X (3.19)

堠 N- ;

LB- ;

X- .

6 . ( / ). .

:

L>L (3.20)

. 1,5 . ( ) 2,4 . - 0,015 0,02 .

: , , - 42 *12 . , 18*30.,

.

, 3.1 . / 堠 1,5 . .

50 .

: 16 . , 19 ; 28 . , 35 . .

, 1/9 1/6 . 200 400 . 200 . .

, .

     - . . . --

-

2 .

B = 30 - ( 3.5 + 1.725 + 3.6 + 3.6 ) = 17.575

L = 2200 / 17.575 = 125

100 젠 L = 131

L = 23*15 / 3 = 115

- :

125 > 115 L >= L



3500 1725 3600 B 3600

30000

. 3.1 -

     16 . - 10 , -

10 .

B = 16 - ( 1.3 + 1.3 ) = 13.4

L = 1780 / 13.4 = 132.8

L = 138.8

L = 23*15 / 3 = 115

132.8 > 115 L > L

6500

100


2800 1300 B 1300 1000

1600

. 3.1

     , , 10 .

B = 22.5 - ( 3.05 + 2.45 + 1 + 2.2 +1.6 ) = 12.2

L = 860 / 12.2 = 70.5

L = 8*15 /3 = 40

70.5 > 40 L > L



2450 B 100 2200 1600

22500

. 3.3

--

, -

-

-

-


. 3.5

3.6

.

d

T1 T2

a

K1 U

K1 K2

J R

b    j

O

. 3.6

:

     R = 1500 - 4000

     i = 6 - 9 %O

     l =40, 60, 80,100

     蠠 d0 =75,100,125,150

     R = 15000

U -

U = a*sinJ - 4.1 , ; (3.21)

a = b + l / 2 +T2 , ; (3.22)

b = T + 100 , ; (3.23)

T = R*D i / 2*1000 , ; (3.24)

T2 = R*tg(J/2) , ; (3.25)

cos (b+j) = ((2*R - U) / 2*R)*cosj (3.26)

tgj = d / 2*R렠 (3.27)

d = d0 + l𠠠 (3.28)

T1 = R*tg(b / 2) (3.29)

K1 = 0.01745*R*b0 (3.30)

K2 = 0.01745*R*J0 (3.31)

:

L = b + l / 2 +K2 + 2*K1 + d (3.32)

:

L = (h / i) *1000 (3.33)

堠 h -

h = 8.5 J <600

h = 7.5 J >= 600

i = i - 700 / R (3.34)

L > L , , J .

:

     T2 = 3000*tg(200 / 2) = 529

     TB = 15000*8 / 2*1000 = 60

     b = 60 + 100 = 160

     a = 160 + ( 60 / 2 ) + 529 = 719

     U = 719*0.342 - 4.1 = 241.8

     d = 100 + 60 = 160

     tgj = 160 / 6000 j = arctg 0.027 = 1.550

     cos j = 0.99960

     cos ( b+j ) =((2*3000-241.8) / 2*3000)*0.9996 = 0.9590

     b+j = 16.4 b = 16.4 - 1.55 = 14.850

     T1=3000*tg(14,85/2)=391 .

     k1=0,01745*3000*14,850=777,4 .

     k2=0,01745*3000*200=1047 .

     L.=160+60/2+1047+2*777,4+160=2951,8 .

     L.=8,5/7,77*1000=1093,95 .

     i.=8-700/3000=7,77%0

     L.>L. 2951.8 > 1093.95

4. -

:

1.  .

2.  - .

3.  - .

4.  .

.

4.1

- .

4.1.

4.1.

-

.

- 堠 I . .

II . .

1.

K=m.*L*a*k

90*103*z

1371*103*z

1794.7*103*z

2. .

K=m.*b*k.

5,5*103*z

387*103*z

458*103*z

3. . -

K.=m.*b*k.

15*103*z . 14*103*z

1056*103*z

1249*103*z

4. - - -

K k/c = (m.*L*a + + 0,05* m.*b)*k /c

. 24,5*103*z . 26*103*z

459.4*103*z

590.6*103*z

5.- . ࠠ . , .

___

___

100*103*z

___

6. - ., ..

_____

__

15*103*z

__

3388.4*103*z

4092.3*103*z

:

m.- ( 堠 )

L - - ,

a- , , 1

a    L=850 :a=1,38

a    L=850 : a=1,12

b- , , -

b=4,9

b=4,4

-. , : 1 . , Ϡ , 1 . .

4.2 .

4.2

- -

.

-堠

1.

=m.*L*a*

5,14*103*Z

78.29*103*z

102.497*103*z

2.

=m.*b*.

2,83*103*z

199..23*103*z

235.74*103*z

3.

/c = (m*L*a + + 0,05*m.*b)*/c

. 1.55*103*z . 1.75*103*z

29.066*103*z

37.36*103*z

4.   -

= L *

0.59*z

0.54*z

21.1*103*z

78.086*103*z

5. - .

--------------------

---------

12*103*z

----------

339.686*103*z

453.683*103*z

:

L-

- , , .

.- .

L. .=2*(2*l +L +l.)*N*365 ,

L. -. =2*(l+l.)*N*365 ,

l- - l=0,2

l- l=0,6 젠 l/.=0,8 . l.=0,3 .

N-

N=åN. .  

4.3 :

E..=E.*+

堠 E - . E=0,12

-

-

1 .= ( 3388.4*0.12 + 339.668 )*103*z = 746276*z .

2 .= ( 4092.3*0.12 + 453.683 )*103*z = 944759*z .

,

.

5.1

:

1. : 65 , -50

2. : - 1/11 ; -1/18 1/22 ; -1/9 ; - 1/9 1/6

3. : , - -1200 , 600 .; -200 , - 180 .

4. : 1/18 1/22 -1500 .1/11300-400 ., 1/9- 200-300 . , 1/6 -180-200 .

5. : 1/9 -24 , 1/11-26 .

6. : -10.6 ; - 5.3 5.5 ( ) ; , -6.5 ; - 5.3 7. 5 ; -7.5 ; -7 , -5.5 ; , -5.5 , , -7 .

7. -50 .

: . -334 .. : .. 1997

 

 

 

! , , , .
. , :