. , , ,

,,,

""

7090214

"

,

,

."

: ",

".

: "

".

: .-46

..

:

..

1998 .

 

. C.

1.   . 2

2.   . 3

3.   . 4

4.   頠 5

.

5.   . 6

6.   , 7

.

7.   , 񠠠 8

.

8.   . 9

9.   (  9

.

10.       . 10

11.       . 11

12.       . 12

13.       13

.

14.       . 14

15.       . 15

16.       . 18

17.       . 21

18.       23

( ).

 

 

 

.

 

.

.

.

 

.

1

 

-46

 

 

 

 

 

.

. .

.

, , . .

, . , 0.51.5 ., 30 *., 2030 ., 50 ., 1000 *., 150 .

, .

1. .

- .

.

, -

, () . -

, 57

.

, . , .

: , ; ; ; ; .

, , . , .

, , , ( ) ( ) .

, . , 2.33.0 ; ; .

, - .

2. .

:

堠 Q (.)

Q0 ,

;

V

h - .

.

:

= 22

, 51 8 380 .

3. .

, :

: a - , ( ).

1.1 1.15.

a = 1.1.

GD2

GD2 = 4.4

GD2 ( )

GD2 = 3.88 (

GD2

GD2 = 1

GD2 ()

GD2 =

堠 m , m = 334 ;

R , R = 0.2 .

, GD2 = 334

G ();

堠 Q+Q0 (.);

g ( ), g = 9.8 /2 ;

H.

n- (/) ;

n= 723 /.

i

堠 n ()

堠 m (m=2);

D ࠠ (D=0.4 )

p = 3.14

V

/;

4. .

, , :

堠 i (i = 25.22);

h - ... (h= 0.84)

=

堠 Q+Q0 () (Q+Q0 = 5775 )

D (D = 0.4 )

m (m = 2)

h - (h = 0.84)

5. .

:

堠 GD2 (GD2 = 12.84

n (n = 723

j

g , , .

, -

( ), , .

:

g = b

堠 b - , .

b = 1.4 ¸ 1.6.

b = 1.6.

( = 22 );

n (n = 723

j1 = g = 47.47 32.45 = 15.02

j2 = - g = - 47.47 32.45 = - 79.92

;

.

, , .

6.   ,

.

, , :

堠 tn (tn = 1.64 );

tm (tm = 0.31 );

V (V = 0.3 /).

;

.

7. ,

.

, , :

堠 , . 蠠 (, , , ), . ( =16 )

Sn , (Sn = 0.25 )

Sm , (Sm = 0.05 )

Sp = H (Sn + Sm) = 16 (0.25 + 0.05) = 15.7 .

8. .

:

堠 Sp , (Sp = 15.7 );

V (V = 0.3

.

9. (

).

:

t0 = 210c = 3.5

.

10.    .

, , . 10 . , 15, 25, 40 60% - .

, :

25% , 15 % , 40% , .

11.    .

, , .

=(t) , .


tn- ;

tp- ;

tm- ;

t0- .

Mn- ;

Mp- ;

Mm- .

12.    .

. -

, , , .

n m , .

,

.

< , , .

> , .

:

堠 Mn = 1.3 M = 1.3 . 29.67 = 38.57 ( . )

堠 k (k = 1.5);

(Q+Q0) ;

D ;

m ;

i ;

h - .

:

= 21.6 < = 22 .

13.      

(51-8) :

堠 l - ( ), l = 3;

( =29.67 . )

max - ( ), max = 85 ..

:

堠 =2.8;

( = 32,45 .).

, , :

3.29.67 = 58 .

0.7 . 2.8 . 29.67 = 58 . > 32.45 .

.

14.    .

51- 8

n

I1

U1

h

I2

U2

GD2

25%

22

723 /

56.5

380

0.7

0.84

70.5

3

197

4.4 .2

15.  .

, n .

.

( , , ). . .

:

k ;

Sk ;

l - (l = 3);

S

堠 n ;

n1 ;

堠 f , (f = 50 );

( 51 8 =4)

51 - 8

n = n1(1 S)

0 1.

S = 0 n = 750 . (1 0) = 750 /;

S = 0.1 n = 750 . (1 0.1) = 675 /;

S = 0.2 n = 750 . (1 0.2) = 600 /;

S = 0.3 n = 750 . (1 0.3) = 525 /;

S = 0.4 n = 750 . (1 0.4) = 450 /;

S = 0.5 n = 750 . (1 0.5) = 375 /;

S = 0.6 n = 750 . (1 0.6) = 300 /;

S = 0.7 n = 750 . (1 0.7) = 225 /;

S = 0.8 n = 750 . (1 0.8) = 150 /;

S = 0.9 n = 750 . (1 0.9) = 75 /;

S = 1 n = 750 . (1 1) = 0 /.

:

S = 0 = 0 .

S = 0.05 .

S = 0.1 .

S = 0.15 .

S = 0.2 .

S = 0.21 .

S = 0.3 .

S = 0.4 .

S = 0.5 .

S = 0.6 .

S = 0.7 .

S = 0.8 .

S = 0.9 .

S = 1 .

51 8 (. .)

16.           .

. S = 100%, 5%.

, 20 . , , 5 6 . , . , . . , , . , .

:

堠 U2 , (U2 = 197 );

S (S =0.036);

I2 (I2 = 70.5 )

, :

()

堠 Z - , (Z = 5)

% - (% = 280).

:

(R1) :

()

(R2) :

R2 = R1. g

R2 = 0.575 . 0.64 = 0.368 ()

(R3);

R3 = R2 . g = R1. g2

R3 = 0.368 . 0.64 = 0.575 . 0.642 = 0.236 ().

(R4);

R4 = R3 . g = R1 . g3

R4 = 0.236 . 0.64 = 0.575 . 0.643 = 0.151 ().

(R5);

R5 = R4 . g = R1 . g4

R5 = 0.151 . 0.64 = 0.575 . 0.644 = 0.096 ().

, :

DR1 = R1 R2,

DR1 = 0.575 0.368 = 0.207 (O);

DR2 = R2 R3,

DR2 = 0.368 0.236 = 0.132 ();

DR3 = R3 R4,

DR3 = 0.236 0.151 = 0.085 ();

DR4 = R4 R5,

DR4 = 0.151 0.096 = 0.055 ().

:

) 蠠 DR1 = 0.207 ()

) DR2 = 0.132 ()

) DR3 = 0.085 ()

) DR4 = 0.055 ()

:

) DR1, 0.207 ();

) DR2, 0.132 ();

) DR3, 0.085 ();

) DR4 = 0.055 ();

S, .

1. .

.

.

S1

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

0.959

1

M1

18.4

35.6

50.7

63.2

73

80

84.8

87.6

88.8

89

87.1

S2

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.688

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

M2

25.3

47.7

65.2

77.3

84.7

88.2

89

88.9

88

85.9

83.1

S3

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.518

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

M3

33.1

59.8

77.2

86.1

88.9

89

88

85.1

81.2

77

72.7

S4

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.409

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

M4

41.1

70.2

84.9

89

89

87.2

82.8

77.5

72.1

67

62.4

,

51 8. (. .)

17.    .

, , . .

:

1)    

2)    

3)    

4)    

5)    

6)    

, , , .

. , ; , , .

(, ) , , .

, :

1)    

2)    

3)    

4)    

5)    

6)    

, .

, .

, . ( , , ..) .

. , , , .

. 20% 100. , . 20% 100.

18. ( ).

.1.


.2. .

1 . , , . ( ). : , , , 1 4 , . 1, 2. : ( ) , ( ) ( , , ) . , , (50% ) .

(..2) ( 1n). ( 2n) . 3n 4'n , 1 (..1), 4'n . : -

( 1 2),

( 3), . 3 3' 3'' . .

1 2 (..1) . . , ( ) , ( ). , . , .

""

 

 

 

! , , , .
. , :