. , , ,

,,,

,

.

............................................................................................................4

1. ............................................................................6

2. ..................................................................................7

2.1 .................................................................................7

2.1.1 堠 젠 젠 ....................................................................7

2.1.2 , ....8

2.1.3 .................9

2.1.4 , , ..............................................................11

2.1.5 , ..............................................................................................12

2.1.6 .........................................................13

2.1.7 ............................................13

2.1.8 ..............................................14

2.2 ...............15

2.2.1 堠 蠠 堠 堠 .........................................................................................15

2.2.2 ...............................................................18

2.2.3 .........................................................................21

2.3. 堠 Ѡ Ethernet.............25

2.4. ..........................27

2.5. ...........................................................................28

2.5.1. .........................................................28

2.5.2. ..............................................................29

2.5.3. .......................................................29

2.5.4. ..............................................................29

2.5.5. ...................................................................29

2.6. ............................................................................30

2.6.1. Borland Pascal 7.0....................................................................31

2.6.2. - Turbo Vision...........31

2.6.3. Turbo Vision.............................................................31

2.6.4 . .............................33

2.6.4.1 ..........................................................33

2.6.4.2 ......................34

2.6.4.3. ......................................................37

2.6.4.4. ................39

2.6.4.5. ..............................................45

2.6.4.6. .............................................46

2.6.4.7. ..........................................................46

2.6.4.8. ...........................................47 2.6.4.9. ()........................................47

2.6.5. ..............................................................................50

2.7 蠠 ⠠ ..................................................50

2.7.1. ࠠ , ᠠ 蠠 ⠠ .......................................................................................50

2.7.2. 堠 .......53

2.7.3. 젠 蠠 堠 蠠 砠 ⠠ ...............................................58

2.7.4. 堠 蠠 

- ......................................................................................59

3. ....................................................................63

3.1 砠 頠 蠠  ࠠ ࠠ  頠 .. ....63

3.2 .........................................................................................71

4. ..................................................................................72

5. ....................................................................74

........................................................................................82

1. .................................................................................83

2. ....................................................................................................84

3. .........................................................................................85

.

⠠ ꠠ 砠 ⠠ 蠠 . ࠠ  ⠠ 蠠 蠠 蠠 ࠠ 蠠 蠠 , 젠 , 蠠 ⠠ 蠠 - 蠠 ⠠ . , , ⠠ 蠠 堠 蠠 , 堠 頠 ⠠ .

頠 頠 ,  ꠠ 頠 , 堠  ࠠ 蠠  ,  蠠 ࠠ 蠠 頠  젠 , 젠 蠠 ... , 堠 ,  頠 堠 (, , , 頠 ), ࠠ 頠 蠠 , 蠠 , ⠠ , , 젠 蠠 ⠠ ⠠ , 蠠 蠠 , 젠 - , 젠 젠 頠 -頠 . 堠  젠 蠠 ꠠ 젠 , 頠 ⠠ 젠 蠠 -젠 .

堠 ⠠ 蠠 蠠 蠠 ꠠ 젠 젠 ⠠ 蠠 . 젠 蠠 젠 젠 -堠 ꠠ 젠 젠 , , , , ⠠ 蠠 頠 . 堠 蠠 ,堠 堠 ࠠ ࠠ 堠 ⠠ (), 堠  蠠 ꠠ , ࠠ  -- ꠠ ̠  . ࠠ 頠 堠 ⠠ 80- -頠 -- 堠 頠 ()  . , ⠠ 堠 , ⠠ , 蠠 蠠 Ѡ  .

  頠 蠠 砠 . 頠 蠠 頠 蠠 , , 蠠 蠠 , 蠠 頠 蠠 頠 , , ᠠ 蠠 , 젠 ࠠ ࠠ ⠠ 蠠 , 젠 ⠠ 頠 蠠 -頠 頠 , 頠 ,  ࠠ 蠠 蠠 . ꠠ , ࠠ 젠 ࠠ 頠 蠠 , 堠 .

   蠠 ࠠ 頠 頠 . 젠 젠 ⠠ 蠠 ࠠ ,  堠 堠 ̠ ⠠ 堠 ⠠ 堠 蠠 堠  젠 () ࠠ 堠 . Ѡ 堠 ⠠ Ѡ , ࠠ ⠠ .   堠 蠠 蠠 , -, 堠 , 蠠 蠠 堠 , 堠 堠 , -- .

堠 ⠠ , , 蠠 (, 堠 蠠 ..) Ѡ 頠  堠 蠠  , 젠 ʠ 蠠 . 頠 ( ), 堠 , 頠 蠠 頠 蠠  蠠  堠 頠 , ࠠ 堠   . 蠠 蠠 ⠠ (, ⠠ 頠 , 蠠 , , , 頠 蠠 ). 堠 蠠 , Ѡ 堠  ꠠ , , ꠠ () , , 堠 蠠 , 蠠 ., ࠠ 堠 䠠 ⠠ 堠 () 蠠 ̠ 蠠 堠 .

蠠  , 堠 堠 蠠 , ࠠ  ࠠ 頠 砠 . . ,

1.

1.1 .

. , , , , , , , .

, . , , , , , , , , , .

, , , . . , , .

:

- , . ( );

- .

:

- IBM Intel386SX ( ) , ;

- - ;

- ;

- , ( , , ) ;

- ;

- , ;

- - ;

- , ;

-

;

- , .

2. .

2.1 .

2.1.1 堠 젠 젠 .

頠 頠 頠 蠠 堠 ࠠ 堠  ࠠ ⠠ , ⠠ 蠠 , 頠 蠠 ࠠ 蠠 , ࠠ ꠠ ࠠ ࠠ 堠 - ࠠ 蠠 .. ࠠ , 젠 , 堠 蠠 젠 - , ࠠ 頠 蠠 .

  젠 砠 頠 蠠 頠 ,  ࠠ 堠 , , ⠠ 蠠 , ࠠ 蠠 頠  ࠠ ⠠ 頠 .  堠 頠 ࠠ 젠 , ࠠ 頠 ꠠ . 젠 ,  蠠  蠠  -, 堠 ,  ࠠ  蠠 , 젠 蠠 ⠠  ⠠ , 頠 堠 . 堠 蠠 堠 , ⠠ 젠 蠠 ࠠ ࠠ .

 頠 ,  젠 ࠠ 堠 ⠠ 蠠 堠 , 堠 ᠠ 젠 蠠 蠠 ꠠ . 蠠 ࠠ  頠 .

,  堠 蠠  頠 ⠠ 蠠 頠 蠠 , 蠠  , 蠠 頠 -頠 , ࠠ 頠 ⠠  蠠 ⠠ .

2.1.2 , .

  頠  堠 , 堠 ⠠ 堠 蠠 堠 , 頠 . ࠠ 蠠  蠠 蠠 蠠 ࠠ 頠 蠠 頠 頠 蠠 蠠 ࠠ 頠 -頠 蠠 蠠 .

  蠠 , 頠  ࠠ  蠠 , ࠠ 蠠 젠 蠠 젠 젠  頠 . 蠠 젠 堠 堠 堠 蠠 蠠 蠠 . 젠 ࠠ 蠠 蠠 蠠  ࠠ 蠠 頠 .  堠  ⠠ 頠 頠 , 頠  頠  젠 . ⠠ 蠠 頠 頠 蠠 젠 砠 , 堠 ꠠ ࠠ 蠠 堠 .

堠  蠠 ⠠ 堠 ࠠ 頠 , .

⠠ 蠠 頠 - , 堠 堠 , ᠠ , 頠 , ࠠ , -.   頠 頠 䠠 蠠 렠 頠 蠠 , 堠 蠠 堠 堠  堠 .

頠 蠠 , , 頠 蠠 蠠 .

堠 頠 頠 蠠 蠠 ⠠ 蠠 . ʠ 蠠 堠 :

 蠠 蠠 , ;

 堠 ;

 蠠 頠 , 蠠 蠠 ࠠ 蠠 蠠 .

2.1.3 .

, Intel 486 ,

ࠠ 頠 , 蠠 ⠠ 蠠 頠 .

ࠠ 砠 ⠠ 蠠 , ⠠ .

堠 堠  ࠠ  , 蠠 蠠 젠 ⠠ , , 蠠 蠠 蠠 蠠 ⠠ 蠠 젠 ⠠ 頠 蠠 蠠 頠 - .

  -젠 蠠 堠 蠠 , ࠠ , 蠠 .

頠 , 頠 ࠠ 堠 -, , , 頠 蠠 頠 , ⠠ 蠠 ࠠ -頠 .

堠 蠠 젠 젠  蠠 蠠 ,  蠠 堠 堠 , 堠 堠 ,  , 젠 , . 堠 堠 : 堠 , .. 堠 젠 , 頠 - ; 堠 堠 頠 , .. 堠 -, - 蠠 , 堠 堠 .

, , , 堠 , 젠 젠 蠠 .

⠠ 蠠 蠠 堠 , , 蠠 ; 堠 堠 蠠 蠠 ࠠ 堠 ⠠ 頠 ;  頠 , 頠 蠠 頠 .

  80-堠 렠 䠠 젠 ꠠ 頠 頠 , , 蠠 . ࠠ 頠 蠠 ⠠ 堠 蠠 蠠 ࠠ 堠 堠 頠 : 堠 蠠 ⠠ 蠠 頠 ࠠ  .   蠠 젠 堠 堠 , ⠠ 堠  , 蠠 蠠 ⠠ 堠 蠠 .   蠠 ࠠ 蠠 頠 蠠 堠 堠 ࠠ 蠠 蠠 .

  ⠠ 蠠  堠 , 堠 蠠 蠠 頠 蠠 堠 堠 : ࠠ , ࠠ , 頠 .

蠠 ࠠ ⠠ 堠 蠠 蠠 렠 堠 頠 蠠 ꠠ 젠 ࠠ 堠 ࠠ 蠠 堠 頠 .

2.1.4 , , .

蠠 蠠 蠠 蠠 젠 蠠 :

1.堠 頠 ꠠ 蠠 蠠 堠 ⠠ 蠠 ;

2.ࠠ , 蠠 蠠 ⠠ 젠 蠠 젠 ;

3.堠 頠 ⠠ (⠠ 젠 , ⠠ 頠 ) ࠠ 蠠 ⠠ 젠 蠠 ⠠ 젠 젠 ;

4.ࠠ  , 堠 蠠 堠 ⠠ ;

5.堠 ⠠ 堠 蠠 젠 , , , 堠 蠠 蠠 頠 ;

6. ࠠ 蠠 ࠠ 頠 ;

7.堠 蠠 , , 蠠 蠠 蠠 蠠 蠠 ⠠ 蠠  ;

8. - ࠠ ࠠ 堠 頠 .

蠠 蠠 頠 :

蠠  蠠 堠 ⠠ ࠠ 젠 堠 蠠 ⠠ ⠠ ࠠ 蠠 蠠 頠 蠠  ⠠ ;

堠 頠 , 蠠 蠠 ;

堠 頠 蠠 蠠 .

堠 頠 ⠠ 頠 頠  , 蠠 堠 堠 ࠠ 蠠 頠 , ࠠ , 頠 ⠠ 蠠 .

堠 堠 ࠠ 堠 頠 蠠 蠠 ᠠ .

堠 堠 堠 ̠ : 堠 , 堠  , .

堠 頠 頠 堠 蠠 堠 ,  - , 堠 .

堠  堠 頠 蠠 ⠠ :

⠠ 젠 -ꠠ 蠠 ;

젠 , 頠 蠠 蠠 蠠 .

2.1.5 , .

 頠 堠 蠠 , 堠 , 堠 , , , 堠 堠 , 堠 ࠠ 頠 -, ࠠ , ࠠ 頠 蠠 頠 蠠 , 堠  ꠠ , ꠠ 蠠 .

̠ , 堠 , 蠠 蠠 .   ̠ 蠠 堠 堠 蠠 頠 蠠 (, ) 蠠 렠 , .

堠 ̠  , 蠠 .

  堠 蠠 -̠ , , :

蠠 ⠠ ࠠ 蠠 ࠠ ;

⠠ , ࠠ ;

ࠠ 頠 ;

ࠠ 젠 ;

ࠠ  堠 ;

蠠 ;

ࠠ 蠠 .

堠 ̠ ⠠ 堠  . 堠 ࠠ ̠  ࠠ 頠 蠠 頠 (ࠠ , ⠠ ⠠  ꠠ 젠 ).

堠 , , ,  堠 堠 ࠠ 蠠 頠 蠠 頠 蠠 ⠠ . 頠 蠠 , ࠠ 젠 蠠 頠 蠠 蠠 ⠠ 頠 蠠 頠 , .

2.1.6 .

ࠠ 堠 , ࠠ 堠 ࠠ 蠠 頠 蠠 . ʠ 젠 젠 頠 :

, , -堠 ;

, -堠 , 蠠 ;

堠 ࠠ 蠠 頠 , ;

頠 蠠 ;

⠠ 蠠 ;

⠠ 蠠 頠 ;

堠 ⠠ ⠠ 젠 ࠠ  蠠  ;

堠 蠠 ⠠ 蠠 蠠 .

 蠠 ࠠ 堠 :

1.堠 () 堠 , ࠠ , , ,  頠 頠 蠠 蠠 ;

2.堠 ࠠ 堠 蠠 頠 蠠 蠠  젠 젠 ⠠ 젠 蠠  젠 .

2.1.7 .

 ࠠ 堠 -蠠 .  ⠠ 젠 蠠  ⠠ . ࠠ 頠 頠 , 蠠  頠 頠 砠 蠠 頠 蠠 , 蠠 堠 堠 . , , , ⠠ 堠 ,  堠 蠠 堠 蠠 ࠠ 頠 䠠 ;  - ();  蠠 ࠠ 蠠 蠠 .

⠠ : , , 頠 () , .

堠 ⠠ 蠠 ̠ 蠠 蠠 蠠 ࠠ 蠠 젠 ࠠ .   堠 蠠 頠 蠠 ⠠ ̠   ࠠ 頠 堠 .

蠠 ⠠ 頠 蠠 蠠 堠 堠  ࠠ  ⠠ 蠠 , ⠠ 젠 蠠 蠠 堠 , 堠 .

2.1.8 .

堠 , ⠠ 젠 蠠  - , ࠠ , 頠 렠  , 堠 ࠠ 堠 蠠 蠠 . , 蠠 蠠 , 蠠  堠 蠠 , ࠠ , ࠠ , , 頠 蠠 , ⠠ 堠 .  堠 堠 蠠 蠠 ⠠ 堠 ()  蠠 .  ࠠ 頠 頠 堠 젠 頠 頠 頠 .

 蠠 , ⠠  堠 ,  蠠  ,  젠 젠 . 蠠 젠 ࠠ 堠 ,  ࠠ , 젠 ⠠ 蠠 , 젠 蠠 젠 , 젠 .

堠 蠠 , ⠠ ,  蠠 砠 ࠠ ⠠ 頠 蠠 蠠 ࠠ  蠠  ࠠ 頠 蠠 .

ࠠ 蠠 堠 ⠠ 頠 蠠 蠠 젠 頠 , 蠠 蠠  堠 .

堠 頠 頠 堠  ࠠ ⠠ 蠠 , 䠠 ꠠ 頠 堠 蠠 ⠠ .

  堠 ࠠ 頠 蠠 頠 蠠  蠠 , 堠 ࠠ 젠 ࠠ 堠 蠠 , ,  , .

頠 頠 頠 蠠 , ꠠ , 頠 .   젠 堠 ⠠ :

1.頠 ⠠ ;

2. ;

3. ⠠ , : 蠠 蠠 ࠠ , 蠠 頠 蠠 頠 , 蠠 蠠 , 頠 .

, , 蠠 , 堠 蠠 ⠠ 頠 ꠠ ࠠ  .

  堠 ࠠ 頠 蠠 ࠠ , ⠠ 蠠 頠 ⠠ 頠 ꠠ 頠 .

ࠠ ࠠ 頠 蠠 ⠠ 젠 젠 젠 .

- , , , , .

2.2 - .

2.2.1 堠 蠠 堠 堠 .

堠 堠 蠠 頠 頠 , ⠠ 堠 蠠 , 堠 蠠 (젠 5 - 10 ) 蠠 , , , , , - 頠 蠠 ... 蠠 蠠  ࠠ 蠠 Ѡ ⠠  , 堠 (), 堠 堠 ࠠ (), , 堠 蠠 堠 , 堠 蠠 堠 , 堠 蠠 .. Ѡ ꠠ 젠 젠 蠠 젠 (, ) 젠 ̠ , ⠠ 蠠 , ࠠ 蠠 ࠠ ʠ 젠 젠 .

 蠠 , ⠠ 젠 , 堠 堠 頠 ⠠ 蠠 , 頠 蠠 , , 蠠 , , -, - , 젠 ⠠ 蠠 .  젠 Ѡ , 頠 , 蠠 蠠 -蠠 , 堠 蠠 ⠠ 堠 頠 , 頠 . 蠠 ⠠ 堠 頠 蠠 Ѡ 蠠 頠 蠠 頠 ,  ࠠ ⠠ Ѡ ࠠ , ⠠ 堠 ꠠ , , , (), 蠠 .

蠠 頠 蠠 頠 () 蠠 () -- , , , , , 젠 蠠 ... 堠 頠 () 蠠 젠 젠 蠠 ⠠ 젠 頠 ⠠ , , 蠠 .  , 蠠 , 蠠 㠠 蠠 .., ⠠ 蠠 蠠 蠠 蠠 蠠 -- 蠠 CD-ROM , 蠠 蠠 蠠 ...   堠 蠠 ⠠  , ࠠ 頠 -- .

ꠠ 砠 , ,  堠 . 頠 IEEE802 ( ⠠  堠 蠠 , ), ࠠ 蠠 ⠠ 蠠 , 堠 堠 젠 : 堠 堠 蠠 ⠠ 頠 ,  蠠  頠 頠 , , ꠠ ࠠ 젠 , , ⠠ 蠠 ⠠ 蠠 򠠠 ⠠ 頠  頠 ... ⠠ , ,  , 蠠 蠠 Ѡ 蠠 ,  IEEE802 Ѡ ࠠ  ⠠ , 蠠 頠 頠 蠠 蠠 蠠 蠠 蠠 ࠠ 1-2 蠠 堠 /.

Ѡ 젠 젠 , ꠠ , 堠 , , ꠠ , 堠 堠 堠 (, ) 蠠 堠 堠 ⠠ 頠 . 堠 蠠 .

頠 頠 Ѡ 蠠 .   堠 蠠 堠 蠠 蠠 砠 ࠠ 堠 ꠠ 蠠 蠠 蠠 ʠ , ࠠ 砠  ࠠ 堠 .  蠠 蠠 1  10 / 蠠 .

堠 蠠 ʠ 堠   ,  蠠  ꠠ 젠 , , ࠠ ̠ (蠠 堠 ) , 堠  . Ӡ ࠠ 蠠 堠 ࠠ 蠠 堠 ࠠ , ࠠ , ⠠ 堠 蠠 砠 ⠠ 堠 .

堠 頠 -- .젠 , 堠 蠠 頠 蠠 蠠 . 蠠 蠠 Ѡ : 蠠 (堠 ), 堠 蠠 (), ࠠ , .

 Ѡ  ꠠ 蠠 ,  젠 . 蠠 ꠠ 蠠 蠠 , ꠠ 蠠 蠠 . ࠠ 蠠 蠠

蠠 蠠 Ѡ . 蠠 蠠 젠 ⠠  . --  -堠 . 젠 젠   頠 , -, ̠ 蠠 , 頠  ꠠ . Ѡ  ⠠ 蠠 ,  ࠠ 蠠 堠 - 蠠 砠 . 蠠 蠠 蠠  蠠 堠 .

蠠 蠠 ⠠ Ѡ , ꠠ , 堠 . 堠 蠠 (堠 堠 ࠠ 頠 ) ࠠ 蠠 堠 .   젠  堠 堠 蠠 () 蠠 (堠 ). 堠 頠 Ǡ  젠  ࠠ 蠠  .

堠  堠 蠠 堠 ⠠ Ѡ ࠠ 堠 : 堠 蠠 蠠 砠 頠 ,  砠 . ,  ⠠ 젠 堠 ࠠ  ࠠ ,  ⠠ 頠 젠 . 堠 蠠 , , ⠠ 堠 젠 ࠠ ࠠ ⠠ 젠 砠 , 堠 ⠠ 蠠 . 堠 ࠠ ࠠ 堠 ⠠ ,  ⠠ Ѡ (蠠 ) 頠 , 頠 堠  ࠠ -- 蠠 .

⠠ 蠠 ⠠ , ꠠ , 堠 ࠠ 頠 蠠 ࠠ 頠 蠠 . 蠠 頠 蠠 䠠 頠 ࠠ (), 堠 ⠠ 堠 ⠠ 頠 , 堠 蠠 , 蠠 堠 蠠 堠 .

2.2.2

⠠ 堠 蠠 Ѡ 蠠  . 蠠 Ѡ ࠠ 堠 ,   堠 堠 蠠 . ʠ 젠  蠠  , 젠 , 蠠 , 蠠 蠠 ,  젠 , 젠 , 젠 젠 , 젠 ꠠ 頠 頠 堠 蠠 ..

 Ѡ  : 堠 (, , 蠠 蠠 蠠 ), 堠 (-), , -, 蠠 頠 蠠 蠠 ..

 젠 ⠠ 蠠 ̠  ࠠ 堠 蠠 . 젠 頠 Ѡ , ⠠ ̠  .  堠 Ѡ 젠 젠 , ,  蠠 頠 蠠 蠠  蠠 蠠 ...

堠 Ѡ 堠 (-, -, ) 蠠 ( ) , ࠠ 堠 堠 堠 .

 蠠 堠 Ѡ ⠠ 蠠 (蠠 ) 頠 頠 ࠠ 堠 . ʠ 頠 堠 蠠 젠 . 頠 堠 頠 蠠 蠠 ꠠ 頠 ( 蠠 ).   젠 堠 Ѡ 젠 젠 (堠  ࠠ 堠 ) (), 頠 . 頠 頠 堠 , 頠 , , 蠠 .   Ѡ 젠 ࠠ , , . 蠠 堠 砠 頠 Ѡ .

蠠 젠 젠 頠 頠 ̠ Ѡ , ꠠ , ,  - ⠠ ⠠ 頠 . 堠 Ѡ 젠 젠  蠠 젠 堠 . ࠠ -堠 Ѡ   , 堠 堠 , ꠠ ꠠ 堠 頠 蠠 蠠 蠠 ꠠ 頠 () .   젠 堠 堠 Ѡ 頠 젠 蠠 젠 .   堠 蠠 . , , ࠠ 蠠 蠠 , ⠠ 蠠  ࠠ (蠠 頠 ⠠ 頠 ).

  Ѡ ࠠ 堠 ࠠ  蠠 ,  堠 , 堠 堠 蠠 蠠 頠 蠠 .

ࠠ 砠 堠 젠 堠 蠠 . ࠠ 頠 蠠 -, 堠 ࠠ 蠠 堠 ⠠ 堠 頠 . ࠠ 頠 蠠 堠 堠 蠠 ࠠ , 젠 ࠠ 蠠 蠠 - 砠 젠 .

 蠠 蠠 蠠 Ѡ ࠠ 蠠 頠 蠠 蠠 頠 . 堠 젠 頠 蠠 젠 頠 蠠 ⠠  젠 . 蠠 , ⠠ . 蠠 젠 堠  젠 젠 () 蠠 ⠠ 蠠 蠠 蠠 ꠠ   蠠 .

  頠 蠠 堠 젠 젠 () 젠 ⠠ . 蠠 젠 젠 젠 젠 堠 蠠 , 堠 ⠠ . ꠠ ,   , Ѡ 頠 蠠 ࠠ 堠 .

젠 蠠 , 頠 ⠠ 頠 蠠 頠 ,  젠 頠 .  젠 젠 Ѡ ࠠ 蠠 , , 頠 , 蠠 ࠠ (, ) 蠠 ..

堠 蠠 Ѡ 蠠  젠 젠 젠 ̠ , ⠠ 젠 蠠 , 砠 頠 䠠 ࠠ  . 렠 堠 ꠠ 砠 ,  ,  堠 蠠 ࠠ , ꠠ . Ѡ 頠 頠 頠 蠠 蠠 蠠 , 蠠 , 蠠 Ѡ 堠 堠 蠠 .  堠 ࠠ , 堠 ꠠ 頠 堠 ࠠ .

頠 頠 頠 . 堠 , -,  堠  , ࠠ -, ࠠ ⠠ , 堠 蠠 . ʠ 젠 頠 ꠠ 蠠 , ࠠ  , ࠠ (蠠 ) 蠠 蠠 ( ⠠ ).蠠 蠠 ⠠ 頠 . , 䠠 , ࠠ ⠠ . 堠  , ̠ ⠠ 蠠 , -̠ 蠠 堠 堠 .

ࠠ 堠 . 堠 ( ) 蠠 堠 . ʠ 젠 堠 堠  蠠 蠠 ࠠ (頠 頠 䠠 ).

  蠠 Ѡ

堠 蠠  젠 , 蠠  蠠 堠 , 蠠 頠 蠠 蠠 . 렠 蠠 T, 頠 ,  : 蠠 ( ).

堠 頠 頠 蠠 ⠠ Ѡ .  , 蠠 , 蠠 ⠠  堠 頠 頠 , ࠠ  (蠠 ) 蠠 (蠠 ⠠ ). 蠠 , , ⠠ 頠 . 堠 堠 蠠 堠 蠠 堠 .

  堠 堠 堠 堠 堠 蠠 (), 堠 젠 . 蠠 , 頠 (堠 1 . /), ꠠ 젠 ,  蠠 - 蠠 .  젠 젠 蠠 堠 ⠠  , ⠠ 蠠 蠠 .    堠 蠠 䠠 : 蠠 , 蠠   , , 堠 ࠠ 蠠 蠠 頠 蠠 ..

ࠠ ⠠ Ѡ  -ࠠ 蠠 , 頠  ࠠ 蠠 頠 , 頠 . 堠  堠 , , .

  堠 蠠  - 頠 ⠠ .  ,  ⠠ 젠 젠 ࠠ ࠠ 蠠 堠 ⠠ ⠠  . ࠠ 堠 ࠠ 젠 , ࠠ 堠 蠠 ࠠ 頠 頠 .

젠 젠 젠 Ѡ 䠠 頠 蠠 .  ꠠ Ѡ 젠   蠠  ࠠ ꠠ . ʠ 頠 堠 䠠 蠠 , 䠠  , 頠 蠠 頠 頠 䠠 蠠 ,  頠 堠 (堠 ) 頠 젠 ࠠ  , 젠 頠 堠 .

2.2.3

, .. ⠠ ⠠ , ꠠ 堠 堠 ⠠ 頠 蠠 젠 堠 蠠 .   ,    젠 堠 堠 ࠠ , , , ꠠ (), 蠠 ..

堠 ꠠ 蠠 頠 .  砠 蠠 頠 򠠠 ࠠ ࠠ : 堠 蠠 .   頠 ʠ (ꠠ ) , 堠 蠠 . ʠ 젠 젠 , , ࠠ 젠 젠 (. .).   頠 頠  ʠ (. .). ࠠ ,  堠 , ꠠ , Ѡ 頠 , ࠠ Ѡ 頠 .

   堠 蠠 蠠 , 堠 蠠 ⠠ 젠 堠 . ࠠ ࠠ  젠 頠 ࠠ  ࠠ 蠠 ࠠ  頠 蠠 젠 頠 ( ). ⠠ Ѡ ⠠ 頠 蠠  ࠠ ( ), 蠠 䠠 ࠠ ࠠ  ,  蠠 ⠠

T = KL + T + T, 堠

L , ;

 蠠  , ;

蠠 ࠠ 堠 頠 , ;

K = 10 /.

, Ѡ 2 ̠ 蠠 蠠 蠠 10 /  30 ,  蠠 蠠 300 . ⠠ 頠 , , 蠠  ࠠ .   蠠 ,  ⠠ Ѡ 젠 堠 堠 2 4 .

頠  頠 ࠠ (. . ). ࠠ ⠠ () 頠 : ࠠ ; ࠠ ⠠ ; ⠠ 젠 堠 (蠠 蠠 頠 ); 堠 蠠 ⠠ 젠 ; 頠 䠠 . ࠠ 堠 .25. 蠠 蠠 Ѡ

ࠠ 頠 頠 .  ⠠ , ࠠ ꠠ 頠 頠 蠠 堠 . , 頠 , ꠠ ꠠ ⠠ 젠 堠  ࠠ ꠠ 頠 . , 堠 젠 젠 蠠 , ࠠ 頠 蠠 ⠠ 堠 蠠 .

ࠠ  頠 堠 頠 蠠 ࠠ .  젠 蠠 蠠 蠠 蠠 蠠 ().  頠 , 蠠 Ѡ  頠 ⠠ 蠠 蠠  頠 ࠠ 頠 . 蠠 蠠 頠 砠  ࠠ 堠 ꠠ 砠 .   堠 ࠠ  ࠠ ࠠ 蠠 ࠠ 堠 .

堠 Ѡ 頠 ࠠ   ꠠ 頠 , ⠠ 頠 堠 堠 . ʠ 蠠  堠 ,  ࠠ 頠 .  頠 堠 堠  .

堠 蠠 ࠠ ࠠ ,  ꠠ , 堠 ꠠ .   Ѡ ⠠ 堠 頠 蠠 頠  堠 蠠 堠 . 堠 Ѡ  堠 , 젠 蠠 頠 ࠠ 蠠 ,  蠠 頠 ⠠ 堠  , 堠 堠 砠 堠 . , ࠠ 堠  , 젠 蠠 .

  頠 頠  砠 . ʠ 젠 젠 ʠ 堠 堠 , 젠 ⠠ , 蠠 ࠠ 蠠 堠 頠 頠 .

堠 頠 堠 堠 , 堠 㠠 , 젠 蠠 蠠 ࠠ ꠠ . ⠠ 堠 堠 蠠 蠠 堠 , 蠠 ꠠ . 頠 ᠠ ⠠ 堠 Ѡ 젠 젠 . 堠 ࠠ  ࠠ ⠠ 蠠 ⠠  ࠠ 젠 , ⠠ 堠 頠 蠠 , ⠠ 堠 . , 蠠 , 堠 ꠠ , 堠  ⠠ , 蠠 .

頠 頠 ᠠ 젠 ⠠ Ѡ 蠠 젠 堠 .   젠 堠  蠠 蠠 . 堠 ࠠ  ࠠ ⠠ 蠠  , ⠠ . 蠠 ⠠ 젠  頠 蠠 頠 . 堠 , ⠠ Ѡ 蠠 蠠 蠠 .

  , 堠  頠 ,

堠 堠 堠 , , ࠠ 젠 , .

   蠠  Ѡ ࠠ ࠠ ⠠ . , ⠠ 頠 砠 ⠠ , 堠 ꠠ 蠠 . 蠠 蠠 ʠ    ⠠ 젠 . Ѡ 젠 ⠠   . 堠 蠠 򠠠 ⠠ 堠 蠠 , 頠 ࠠ . ࠠ ꠠ - , ⠠ 堠 蠠 ࠠ 頠 . 젠 蠠 () , 蠠  堠 ꠠ . 堠 젠 堠 砠 ࠠ - 젠 蠠 堠  - . 蠠 砠 蠠 堠  ,  젠 頠 ꠠ , 頠 蠠 堠 .

ꠠ ,    ⠠ 蠠 . 䠠 砠 ⠠ 蠠 ⠠ 堠 , 蠠 Ѡ 蠠  , 頠 .    堠 , ࠠ 堠 堠 蠠 Ѡ 蠠 頠 蠠 , 頠 蠠 蠠 頠 蠠 .   頠 堠 ࠠ : ࠠ , ࠠ ⠠ , 蠠 蠠 젠 蠠 ⠠ 蠠 ⠠ . 堠 , ⠠ 頠 Ѡ 䠠 ⠠ 頠 蠠 蠠 ࠠ 頠  .

,  ⠠ 蠠 堠 頠 (堠 ) 頠 ; ; 堠 ⠠ 頠 頠 蠠 ⠠ ⠠ .

堠  ⠠ 蠠 蠠 ⠠ .   蠠 堠 ࠠ ꠠ ࠠ . 蠠 頠 堠 堠 蠠 ,  堠 堠 . , 蠠  蠠 堠 蠠 

蠠  ⠠ .   젠 蠠 Ѡ 頠 蠠 , ꠠ ꠠ 堠 蠠 ⠠ 蠠 堠 堠 蠠 ⠠ .   : 堠   蠠 .

2.3. 堠 Ѡ Ethernet.

蠠  堠 . 堠 , Ethernet Xerox  頠 , ꠠ ꠠ  ࠠ , ⠠ 1972 .. 堠 堠  蠠 堠 ,  堠 , ꠠ 㠠 ࠠ Ethernet, DEC, Intel 蠠 Xerox (DIX).   1982 . ࠠ ࠠ ⠠ 堠  , ࠠ 젠 802 IEEE, ࠠ 頠 (European Computer Manufactures Association).

蠠  ࠠ ࠠ . 蠠 頠 젠 50 . 蠠 10 /. 䠠 , CSMA/CD. , 蠠 ࠠ 頠 堠 6,5 , ࠠ ࠠ 堠  1 1,25 . 蠠 蠠 ࠠ . 蠠 蠠 蠠 ꠠ , 堠 蠠  򔠠  , , 堠  , ࠠ . 򔠠 堠 , ꠠ ꠠ 蠠  ࠠ  頠 ALOHA.

C Ethernet 砠 , 蠠 , 蠠 렠 蠠 . ࠠ . 蠠 Ethernet , , 堠 堠 蠠 Ethernet ⠠ 堠 .

ࠠ ࠠ CSMA/CD 堠 ࠠ ⠠ ࠠ 蠠 . ,  蠠 젠 堠 頠 頠 , 頠  , ࠠ Ġ 蠠 . ꠠ  砠 頠 堠 , ࠠ 蠠 ⠠ 堠 Ethernet 64  1518 .

8 6 6 2 64 1518 4 -

________________________________________________________

! ! ! ! 堠 ! - !

!( -! ( - ! ! ! - !

!) ! ) ! ! ! ࠠ !

ࠠ 蠠 ࠠ CSMA/CD.   , 렠 堠 頠 ࠠ . , 蠠 ,   . 蠠 ࠠ , 1518 . 頠 ࠠ 젠 젠 . 蠠 頠 堠 , 頠 64 , (蠠 64 8 = 512 ), 蠠 蠠 蠠 10 /, 蠠 ࠠ  51,2 . 蠠 ⠠ 堠 CSMA/CD , 蠠 ࠠ  堠 젠 堠 , 젠 ࠠ 蠠 . 蠠 頠 堠 ࠠ ⠠ 64 ࠠ 堠 堠 蠠  2,8 .

,  ࠠ ࠠ ࠠ Ethernet:

锠 Ethernet (Thick Ethernet). 堠 ⠠ 堠 ⠠ 蠠   (ࠠ 蠠  )  젠  2,5 . ,  ,   堠 蠠 :

500 蠠 蠠 ;

1000 蠠 蠠 ⠠ 3Com;

锠 Ethernet (Thin Ethernet). Ethernet 堠 ⠠ 堠 蠠   蠠 RG-58A/U.  Ethernet 젠 蠠 堠 . 頠 ⠠ 젠  ,   蠠  ꠠ 젠 蠠 ꠠ 젠 젠 - . , 堠 蠠  씠 Ethernet:

185 蠠 蠠 ;

304 蠠 蠠 ⠠ 3Com.

  堠 堠 蠠 蠠 ࠠ Ethernet ʠ 蠠 Ethernet 3Com () 蠠 Novell Ethernet Novell (). 堠 蠠 -. Ethernet . - , .

2.4 .

 ⠠ 堠 () ⠠ 頠 頠 . 頠 砠 堠 .   젠   ࠠ ࠠ , 頠 砠 Norton Commander. 锠  ꠠ  , 堠 堠 () 蠠 堠 堠 頠 蠠 .

  蠠 堠 ࠠ 頠 , ࠠ  頠 㠠 젠 (頠 ). 蠠 頠 LANtastic 蠠 Artisoft, LANstart 蠠 D-Link System, NET/30 Invisible Software, Ѡ WebNos 蠠 Websorp. 蠠 堠 ⠠ IBM PC, ࠠ 堠 , 蠠 頠 󠠠 䠠 頠 頠 MS DOS. 堠 蠠 젠  蠠 ࠠ 蠠 , 堠 堠 堠 (-) 蠠 堠 堠 堠 .

頠 ʠ 蠠 ꠠ 頠 , ꠠ 蠠 젠 젠 . Ѡ ࠠ 1 2 蠠 ࠠ 頠 ꠠ 젠 . ࠠ 蠠 , ꠠ , 堠 頠 堠 , ꠠ ꠠ  ࠠ ⠠ . 蠠 ⠠ 蠠  . 堠 蠠  頠 ⠠ 蠠 .

  頠 堠 ࠠ 堠 NetWare Lite Novell. ࠠ ࠠ 蠠 젠  ࠠ (堠 , , 堠 , 堠 蠠 蠠 ..). 蠠 頠 蠠 蠠 .   2 25 頠 堠 ࠠ 頠 .  젠 頠 蠠 . 젠 蠠 頠 ,   ,  , 젠  頠 () 蠠 ⠠  ⠠ ⠠ 蠠 蠠 頠 .

  堠 頠 ⠠ NetWare Lite 堠 , 堠 IBM PC XT/AT. ࠠ ࠠ ࠠ MS DOS (蠠 3., 4., 5.0, 6.0), MS Windows, ࠠ ⠠ 蠠 蠠 , 堠 堠 , ꠠ , 蠠 .    堠 ࠠ Ѡ  頠 蠠 頠 . NetWare Lite IPX/SPX, ࠠ , NetBIOS,  蠠 蠠 NetWare.

ࠠ NetWare Lite ࠠ ࠠ Ethernet 蠠 Arcnet.

  Ѡ 頠 蠠 , ࠠ , 젠 堠 , 젠 . 堠 蠠  ࠠ 蠠  ࠠ ( 100 ) 蠠 堠 () , 堠  250 頠 蠠 . 젠 젠 ⠠ Ѡ ࠠ Novell. 젠 頠 NetWare 頠 2., 3..

, , , Ѡ NetWare Lite Novell. ࠠ - .

2.5 .

- . , . , : , - , , , ..

2.5.1. Ƞ .

, , . . , . , , . - , . . - .

.   , , , .

2.5.2 .

. - , , . .

2.5.3.

1.    IBM PC XT/AT ;

2.    EPSON;

3.    MS-DOS 3.31 ;

4.    700Kb ;

5.    CONFIG.SYS FILES=NN, NN - 50.

2.5.4.

. INSTALL.EXE . IPX , , ( ) .

2.5.5.

1.

:

         - , .

         - .

         - .

2. .

- . : , , , , , - , , . .

3.

-. . 堠 , 堠  , ( , ) . . . , , , .

4. Р .

, . , :

         - .

         - .

         - .

         - ( ).

         - .

5. .

.

2.6.

2.6.1 BORLAND PASCAL 7.0

Borland Pascal 7.0 , DOS WINDOWS. , , , IBM PC/XT. , BP , - Turbo Vision 2.0, , DOS .

2.6.2. - TURBO VISION

- DOS- TURBO VISION 2.0 : TValidator , . , , - , , Paradox dBASE.

, Turbo Visoin 2.0 ? TV - - . Borland International Turbo Vision, .

Turbo Vision - - , :

         ;

         ;

         ;

         ;

         , , , ;

TV .

2.6.3. TURBO VISION

Turbo Vision - , .

- , , . , , , , - . , . , , . :

         - TDesktop, . , TWindow, TDialog .. TDesktop TApplication .

         . Turbo Vision TWindow. TFrame . , - Tab Shift-Tab () .

         . TDialog TWindow . TWindow , . cmCancel Esc ( ) cmDefault Enter.

         . TButton - , . TButton TDialog , - .

         . TInputLine. , - , /, Backspace, Delete, Insert, Home, End.

         . TListViewer .

         . TStaticText - , . , Writeln, TStaticText ( ) . , .

- -, . , TV. , - , . TV . Tapplication, TV .

, F1 , .

- , . , .

, . - , .

() - TURBO VISION. , , .

2.6.4 .

2.6.4.1 .

: , , , . , , ... , . . :

BEGIN

{ }

{}

{ }

END.

, . Borland Pascal, Turbo Vision ! Turbo Vision , . Turbo Vision.

Uses App;

Var

SklVks : TSklVks;

Begin

SklVks.Init;

SklVks.Run;

SklVks.Done;

End.

Turbo Vision APP ( Application - ). Turbo Vision. TApplication, .. (, , , ). TApplication INIT, RUN DONE. . , (. 1) :

( 1)

, , , ALT-X . , ? , TApplication .

, , Init Run TApplication. , : ( ), ( ) ( ).

2.6.4.2 .

- . SKLVKS. () TApplication InitStatusLine InitMenuBar. InitStatusLine , : , . . F1 F10 . InitMenuBar , . (. 2)

USES APP,OBJECTS,MENUS,DRIVERS,VIEWS;

Const

cmPrnSklad = 200;

cmSklad = 201;

cmZak = 203;

cmPriceLst = 204;

cmHelp_About = 205;

cmPrint = 206;

cmPrihod = 207;

cmSbros = 208;

cmNext = 209;

cmMore = 213;

cmSKL = 214;

cmDostup = 215;

cmDobavka = 216;

cmRekviz = 217;

cmKurs = 218;

cmTemp = 219;

cmPriceList = 220;

cmSdelka = 221;

cmPrih = 222;

cmVozvrat = 223;

cmKorPrihod = 224;

cmDolgi = 225;

cmUdal = 226;

cmMoney = 227;

cmArchive = 228;

Type

TSklVks = object(TApplication)

Procedure InitStatusLine ; Virtual;

Procedure InitMenuBar ; Virtual;

End;

Procedure TSklVks.InitStatusLine; { }

var

R: Trect;

Begin

GetExtent(R);

R.A.Y:=pred(R.B.Y); { }

StatusLine:=New(PStatusLine,Init(R,NewStatusDef(0,$ffff,

NewStatusKey(' ~ALT-X~- ',kbAltX,cmQuit,

NewStatusKey(' ~F1~-',kbf1,cmHelp_About,

NewStatusKey(' ~F10~-',kbf10,cmMenu,

nil))),nil)));

END;

Procedure TSklVks.InitMenuBar; { }

var

R: Trect;

Begin

GetExtent(R);

R.B.Y :=succ(R.A.Y); { }

MenuBar:=New(PMenuBar,Init(R,NewMenu(NewSubMenu('~~',hcNoContext,

NewMenu(

NewItem('~~',' ',kbNokey,cmSklad,hcNoContext,

NewItem('~~',' ',kbNoKey,cmSdelka,hcNoContext,

NewItem('~~',' ',kbNoKey,cmPrih,hcNoContext,

NewItem('~~',' ',kbNoKey,cmDolgi,hcNoContext,

NewItem('~~',' ',kbNoKey,cmMoney,hcNoContext,

NewLine(

NewItem('~~','ALT-X',kbAltX,cmQuit,hcNoContext,nil)))))))),

NewSubMenu('~~',hcNoContext,(NewMenu(

NewItem('~~','',kbNoKey,cmZak,hcNoConText,

NewItem('~~','',kbNoKey,cmVozvrat,hcNoConText,

nil)))),

NewSubMenu('~~',hcNoContext,NewMenu(

NewItem(' ~~','',kbNoKey,cmPrihod,hcNoContext,

NewItem('~~ ','',KbNoKey,cmKorPrihod,hcNoContext,

nil))),

NewSubMenu('~~',hcNoContext,NewMenu(

NewItem('~~ ',' ',kbNoKey,cmPrnSklad,hcNoContext,

NewItem(' ~~',' ',KbNoKey,cmPriceList,hcNoContext,

nil))),

NewSubMenu('~~',hcNoContext,NewMenu(NewItem('~~ ',

' ',kbNokey,cmArchive,hcNoContext,nil)),

NewSubMenu('~~',hcNoContext,NewMenu(

NewItem('~~',' ',kbNoKey,cmDostup,hcNoContext,

NewItem('~~',' ',kbNoKey,cmRekviz,hcNoContext,

NewItem('~~ ',' ',kbNoKey,cmKurs,hcNocontext,

nil)))),

NewSubMenu('~~',hcNoContext,NewMenu(

NewItem(' ~~ ... ','',kbNokey,cmHelp_About,hcNoContext,

nil)),

nil))))))))));

end;

Var

SKLVKS : TSKLVKS;

BEGIN { }

SklVks.Init;

SklVks.Run;

SklVks.Done;

END. { }

( 2)

2.6.4.3

, - . , - . HandleEvent TApplication. TSklVks ...

Type

TSklVks = Object(TApplication)

......

Procedure HandleEvent(var Event : Tevent); virtual;

End;

:

Procedure TSklVks.HandleEvent(var Event : TEvent);

Begin

TApplication.HandleEvent(Event);

if Event.What = evCommand then

case Event.Command of

cmPrnSklad : Begin

PrintSklad;

End;

cmSklad : begin

Sklad;

end;

cmZak : Begin

Zak;

End;

cmHelp_About : Begin

Help_About;

End;

cmPrihod : Begin

Prihod;

End;

cmPrih : Begin

Prih;

End;

cmDostup : begin

Dostup;

end;

cmRekviz : begin;

rekviz;

end;

cmKurs : Begin

Kurs;

end;

cmPriceList : Begin

GetDate(yyyy,mm,dd,ww);

PriceList(dd,mm,yyyy);

ClearEvent(Event);

end;

cmSdelka : Begin

Sdelki;

End;

cmVozvrat : Begin

Vozvrat;

End;

cmKorPrihod : Begin

KorPrihod;

End;

cmDolgi : Begin

Dolgi;

End;

cmMoney : Begin

Money;

End;

cmArchive : Begin

Arc_;

End;

else

ClearEvent(Event);

end;

ClearEvent(Event)

End;

2.6.4.4

TSklVks.HandleEvent , . Prih. - . , , . , . :

(* *)

Type PPP = record

Number : LongInt; { }

FirmName : String[22]; { }

Date : String[10]; { }

Kurs : Real; { }

TotalItems : LongInt; { - }

SebSumma : Real; { }

End;

(* }

Type PPPItems = Record

Number : LongInt; { }

PrihodNum : LongInt; { }

SkladNum : LongInt; { }

Name : String[lpname]; {}

Rasf : String[lprasf]; {}

Box : Integer; {- }

Kolvo : LongInt; {- }

SebPrice : Real; { }

Price : Real; { }

SellTimes : Boolean; {}

End;

SKLTYPES.PAS. , :

Var { }

PrihodData : PPP;

PrihodItemsData : PPPItems;

....{ }

PrihodFile : File of PPP;

PrihodItemsFile : File of PPPItems;

....

, . , . Dialog Designer 4.0. , , .

, c .

unit PRIHOD1;

interface

uses Drivers, Objects, Views, Dialogs, Validate;

type

PrihodDataRec = record

Field1 : String[10];

Field3 : String[13];

Field2 : String[22];

end;

PPrihodDataRec = ^PrihodDataRec;

{ TPrihodDataDialog }

PPrihodDataDialog = ^TPrihodDataDialog;

TPrihodDataDialog = object(TDialog)

constructor Init;

constructor Load(var S: TStream);

procedure HandleEvent(var Event: TEvent); virtual;

procedure Store(var S: TStream);

function Valid(Command : word): boolean; virtual;

destructor Done; virtual;

end;

Var

PRD : PrihodDataRec;

Const

RPrihodDataDialog : TStreamRec = (

ObjType: 12345; {<--- Insert a unique number >= 100 here!!}

VmtLink: Ofs(Typeof(TPrihodDataDialog)^);

Load : @TPrihodDataDialog.Load;

Store : @TPrihodDataDialog.Store);

implementation

{ TPrihodDataDialog }

constructor TPrihodDataDialog.Init;

var

R: TRect;

Control : PView;

begin

R.Assign(13, 3, 66, 17);

inherited Init(R, ' / ');

Flags := Flags and not wfMove;

R.Assign(24, 3, 36, 4);

Control := New(PInputLine, Init(R, 10));

Insert(Control);

PInputLine(Control)^.Validator := New(PPXPictureValidator, Init('{##}/{##}/{####}', true));

R.Assign(5, 3, 24, 4);

Insert(New(PLabel, Init(R, 'ࠠ : ', Control)));

R.Assign(24, 5, 39, 6);

Control := New(PInputLine, Init(R, 13));

Insert(Control);

PInputLine(Control)^.Validator := New(PPXPictureValidator, Init('*#[.#][#]', False));

R.Assign(5, 5, 24, 6);

Insert(New(PLabel, Init(R, ' ࠠ : ', Control)));

R.Assign(24, 7, 48, 8);

Control := New(PInputLine, Init(R, 22));

Insert(Control);

R.Assign(5, 7, 24, 8);

Insert(New(PLabel, Init(R, ' : ', Control)));

R.Assign(7, 10, 18, 12);

Control := New(PButton, Init(R, '~~', cmCancel, bfNormal));

Insert(Control);

R.Assign(23, 10, 41, 12);

Control := New(PButton, Init(R, '~~', cmOK, bfDefault));

Insert(Control);

R.Assign(37, 3, 51, 4);

Control := New(PStaticText, Init(R, '[ // ]'));

Insert(Control);

SelectNext(False);

end;

constructor TPrihodDataDialog.Load(var S: TStream);

begin

inherited Load(S);

end;

procedure TPrihodDataDialog.HandleEvent(var Event: TEvent);

begin

(*---

if Event.What = evMessage then

case Event.Command of

end; --*)

inherited HandleEvent(Event);

(*---

if Event.What = evMessage then

case Event.Command of

end; --*)

end;

procedure TPrihodDataDialog.Store(var S: TStream);

begin

inherited Store(S);

end;

function TPrihodDataDialog.Valid(Command : word): boolean;

var

Result : boolean;

begin

Result := inherited Valid(Command);

Valid := Result;

end;

destructor TPrihodDataDialog.Done;

begin

inherited Done;

end;

end.

PRIH :

PRD.Field1:=ShowDate; { - }

Str(GetKurs:-1:2,PRD.Field3); { - }

FillChar(PRD.Field2[1],22,' '); { }

c1:=ExecuteDialog(New(PPrihodDataDialog,Init),@PRD);[1] { }

, . (. PRIH2.PAS), (, , , ..). (. . 3)

(.3)

, . , . ( . FIRMA.PAS) :

OpenPrihodFile; { . SklFiles.Pas}

Seek(PrihodFile,FileSize(PrihodFile)-1);

Write(PrihodFile,PrihodData);

ClosePrihodFile; { . SklFiles.Pas}

, ( PRIH ) TRUNCATE.

. (. PrintPrihodNakl PrintEndOfPrihodNakl SklUnit). LST, LPT1, Writeln(LST, ) . : SKLAD.001 ( ) , PRIHOD.001 ( ), PRIHOD.002 ( ). : -, -, --, - , -. -. . : , ( ). () ( , ). : , (), , . , , , . : SDELKA.001 ( ), SDELKA.002 ( ), SKLAD.001 .

, .

Data1:=New(PStrSor,Init(10,1)); { }

For N:=0 to FileSize(DataFile)-1 do { ,  )

begin {1}

Seek(DataFile,n);

Read(DataFile,Data); { }

val(Data.ProductOst,tempccc,code);

Str(Data1^.Count+1,Numm);

if tempccc=0 then goto ccc; { , }

o[0]:=chr(57);

FillChar(o[1],57,' ');

with data do

begin { : , , }

move(Numm[1],o[2],Length(Numm));

move(ProductName[1],o[succ(lpnum-1)+4],Length(Data.ProductName));

move(ProductRasf[1],o[succ(lpnum+lpname)+5],Length(Data.ProductRasf));

move(ProductNumber[1],o[50],Length(Data.ProductNumber));

end;

Data1^.Insert(NewStr(o)); { }

ccc:

end; {1}

Turbo Vision TListBox. . , TListBox.NewList.

Var

SCR : PScrollBar ;

LIST : PLitstBox;

.....

Begin

.....

RR.Assign(50,05,51,17); { }

Scr:=New(PscrollBar,Init(RR)); { }

Insert(Scr); { }

R.Assign(03,05,50,17); { }

List:=New(PMyListBox,Init(R,1,scr)); { }

List^.NewList(Data1); { }

Insert(list); { }

....

End;

:

-. . .

() . . , DATECOMP DATES.PAS. , ( ) (. SKLSTR.PAS). , , , , .

2.6.4.5 Š .

, Borland Pascal. (123 ). NUMSTR.PAS. 1000000.00 1,000,000.00. NUMSTR.PAS.

2.6.4.6 .

, . - . () (, ), , () . : , . Ec , SDELKA.ARCHIVE TRUE. SDELKA.ARCHIVE FALSE. .

2.6.4.7 .

, . ( ) FIRMA.DAT, :

Type { }

ConfigFileStructure = record

CassName : String[22]; { }

BuhName : String[30]; { }

GenName : String[30]; { }

UserName : String[30]; { }

Signature : String[10]; { BIOS' }

Reserved1 : String[10]; { }

Reserved2 : String[10]; { }

Reserved3 : String[20]; { }

Password : String[10]; {}

FirmName : String[60]; { }

Kurs : Real; { }

end;

. - . . . , , TInputLine.HandelEvent , , * (). . PASSWORD.PAS. OK . , FIRMA.DAT Password. , .

.

2.6.4.8. .

, , . ConfigFileStructure PassWord String[10];

Type

ConfigFileStructure = record

....

Password : String[10];

....

End;

-

cmDostup, Dostup

SETUP.PAS. :

:

. OK

.

,

FIRMA.DAT.

.

(58+ )*2.

.

,

, ,

.

2.6.4.9. ().

. ,

, .

, , ( , ..). :

Type

DataType = record { }

ProductNumber : String[5]; {}

ProductName : String[22]; {}

ProductRasf : String[10]; {}

PieceInBox : String[5]; {- }

ProductPrice : String[12]; { }

ProductKol : String[12]; { }

ProductFirm : String[22]; { }

ProductDate : String[l10]; { }

ProductOST : String[12]; { }

ProductKurs : Real; { }

ProductSellPrice : Real; { }

ProductVozvrat : LongInt; {}

end;

Var

Data : DataType;

DataFile : File of DataType; { SKLAD.001}

() () :

1.    .

2.    .

3.    - Data , Write(DataFile,Data). - Read(DataFile,Data);

4.    .

. :

Type { }

SdelkaInfo = record

SdelkaNumber : LongInt; { }

Reserved : Word;

Archive : Boolean; { }

ItemIndex : LongInt; { }

ItemsTaken : LongInt; { }

FirmName : String[22]; {}

Date : String[10]; { }

OplataDate : String[10]; { }

Summa : Real; {}

Kurs : Real; { }

SummaSkidka : Real; { }

Oplata : Boolean; {TRUE - }

End;

Type

OneItemInfo = record { }

Number : LongInt;

SdelkaNumber : LongInt;

SklNum : LongInt;

Name : String[22];

Rasf : String[10];

Box : Integer;

KolVo : LongInt;

SBPrice : Real;

Price : Real;

Vozvrat : LongInt;

End;

Var

Sdelka : SdelkaInfo;

SdelkaFile : File of SdelkaInfo; { SDELKA.001}

Item : OneitemInfo;

ItemsFile : File of OneItemInfo; { SDELKA.002}

. : , , , , ( ), , , , .

, .

, , :

1.    SdelkaFile ItemsFile;;

2.    SdelkaFile (Seek(SdelkaFile,n));

3.    (Read(SdelkaFile,Sdelka);

4.    , Sdelka.ItemIndex ItemsFile ( Sdelka.ItemsIndex Sdelka.ItemsIndex+Sdelka.ItemsTaken) . (Read(ItemsFile,Item);

5.    SdelkaFile ItemsFile;

Borland Pascal :

OpenSdelkaFile;

OpenItemsFile; { : SKLFILES.PAS}

Seek(SdelkaFile, ); { }

Read(SdelkaFile,Sdelka); { }

for n:=Sdelka.ItemIndex to Sdelka.ItemsTaken do { - }

Begin

Seek(ItemsFile,n);

Read(ItemsFile,Items);

...... ( ) .....

End;

CloseItemsFile;

CloseSdelkaFile { };

, .

2.6.5.

BORLAND PASCAL 7.0 - TURBO VISION .

2.7 蠠 ⠠

2.7.1. ࠠ , ᠠ 蠠 ⠠

堠 堠 ⠠ 蠠 Ѡ  堠 堠 ⠠ ꠠ 頠 堠 , ⠠ 頠 , ࠠ 堠 蠠 () 蠠 .

䠠 頠 蠠 堠 蠠 , 堠 蠠 ꠠ , 蠠 ⠠ , , 蠠 , ࠠ 堠 堠 蠠 堠 .

 ࠠ , 蠠 , 蠠 . 젠 蠠 ⠠ 젠 , 砠 , 堠 頠 蠠 蠠 Ѡ 蠠 ... 堠 , ⠠ 堠 , ࠠ 젠 () Ѡ , ⠠ ࠠ 堠 蠠 .

堠 , ꠠ , ࠠ 堠 堠 ⠠ , 堠 蠠 젠 堠 . 頠 頠 , , ࠠ , 頠 ⠠ 蠠 頠 , 젠 .

堠 堠  Ѡ 젠  ࠠ 堠 堠 堠 蠠 堠 . ʠ 젠 젠 , , 堠 蠠 堠 堠 頠 蠠 , 䠠 砠 ̠ 蠠 堠 頠 , 頠 ⠠ 蠠 頠 蠠 Ѡ 蠠 ... 蠠 砠 堠 , 堠 蠠 ...

ʠ 젠 젠 蠠 : 堠 頠 , , 堠 堠 ⠠ , 堠 ⠠ , 頠 , 砠 , 砠 ⠠ .

蠠 蠠 頠 蠠 頠  젠 , 堠 堠 ⠠ Ѡ 蠠 ...   젠 , 堠 , 젠  ࠠ ( ), 蠠 , 堠 젠 頠 .

, ꠠ , 젠 頠 ⠠ , ⠠ 堠  堠  ,  堠 頠 .   堠 頠 蠠 蠠 頠  蠠 蠠 ࠠ .

堠 堠 ⠠ , 頠 , 젠 蠠 蠠 , ࠠ 堠 , , 堠 堠 頠 蠠 頠 , 蠠 頠 ᠠ 젠 蠠 蠠 . ᠠ ⠠ ࠠ , ࠠ 堠 ⠠ ,   ࠠ 蠠 砠 .

堠 ⠠ , 蠠 , 젠 堠 , 蠠 ꠠ , 蠠 蠠 . 堠 젠 , ⠠ 젠 蠠 .

頠 頠 蠠 Ѡ 蠠 ꠠ 젠 砠 ,  ꠠ 젠 ,   젠 젠  .

砠 蠠 򠠠 ⠠ 蠠 젠 蠠 頠 , ⠠ 堠 蠠 蠠 . , ⠠ , 頠 砠 堠 (, , 堠 蠠 ..) 젠 ,  堠 蠠 젠 젠 頠 堠 頠 .

砠 ⠠ 蠠 頠 ࠠ 蠠  , 젠 頠 ࠠ . 頠 砠  ⠠ , ࠠ ࠠ 젠 ⠠ 蠠 蠠 ꠠ 젠  . , 堠 ࠠ , 頠 ⠠ 堠 ࠠ , ࠠ  堠 堠  , 頠  蠠 堠 .

蠠 Ѡ ࠠ 젠 堠 蠠 蠠 - .   , 堠 蠠 蠠 (. .).   蠠 씠 蠠 蠠 ࠠ 젠 砠 頠 頠 : 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7.

堠 젠 蠠 ꠠ , 젠 堠 ࠠ  ,   ࠠ ࠠ 堠 : ࠠ  蠠 .   蠠 蠠 蠠  蠠 ࠠ 堠 蠠 .   ࠠ 蠠 蠠  ꠠ 蠠 ⠠ 蠠 ࠠ (): 堠 ()  ,  ࠠ 蠠 堠  ࠠ (). 蠠 젠 ࠠ 蠠 (), 堠 ⠠ 堠 ⠠ .   蠠 ⠠ 堠 ꠠ 젠 ꠠ  㠠 ࠠ 蠠 젠 堠  젠 , ⠠ 蠠 젠 ꠠ 蠠 ⠠ 堠 ⠠ . ꠠ , ⠠ 젠 堠  蠠 頠 , ࠠ ꠠ .

堠 ࠠ ࠠ ꠠ 蠠  ࠠ Ѡ 堠 ⠠ 堠 蠠 ᠠ .

堠 , 蠠 ᠠ 蠠 . 堠 ᠠ 蠠 ⠠ 堠 . 堠 젠 蠠 . 堠 ࠠ 蠠  蠠  堠  ࠠ 蠠 . 堠 ,  , ࠠ , . 蠠 젠 堠  ࠠ 堠 頠 .

,  ⠠ ⠠ Ѡ ࠠ 頠 蠠 頠 蠠 蠠 .

2.7.2. 堠 蠠

䠠 젠 젠 ()  , ꠠ ⠠ ࠠ 젠 蠠 蠠 ⠠ - 蠠 . 堠 頠 ࠠ 堠  蠠 蠠 砠 蠠 . ࠠ 頠   蠠 蠠 ⠠ 젠 ⠠ 堠 蠠 蠠 蠠  砠 堠 頠  蠠 .

蠠    ꠠ 堠 堠 , ࠠ 堠 蠠 䠠 (), 堠 , 堠 䠠 . 堠 頠 씠  堠  (, , 蠠 ..), ⠠ 堠 ꠠ 堠 堠 , 堠  蠠  .   堠 頠 ࠠ 젠 , ⠠ 堠 . ,  堠 堠 蠠  Ѡ 蠠 , ⠠ , 젠 ⠠ 蠠 .

堠 堠 ⠠ 씠 ⠠ ,  堠 ࠠ  ⠠ Ѡ  () 蠠 堠  򠠠 () 젠 () ⠠  . 젠 , 򠠠 頠 頠 . , 堠 , , , .

堠 ( ࠠ  ꠠ 堠 頠 頠 堠 - ), ꠠ , 젠 , 렠 堠 堠 頠 .   ⠠  ,  ⠠ 堠  ,  頠 頠 頠 頠 䠠 ࠠ ,  頠 頠  ࠠ ࠠ , 頠  . ⠠ , 頠 , ,  - 堠 , 堠  堠 .

唠 堠 ⠠ 堠 젠 砠 蠠 ⠠ , 젠 堠 ࠠ 젠 ꠠ 堠 , ꠠ 蠠 . , 堠 ,  .

렠 蠠 ࠠ  堠 : , , 蠠 () 蠠 .   堠  ࠠ ,   ࠠ 蠠 . ࠠ 堠 堠 堠 , , 蠠 ࠠ .

ࠠ ࠠ  . 砠 , , . 䠠 頠 ࠠ  , 堠 .  , ⠠ 堠 頠  . , 堠 砠 頠 , , 堠 砠 蠠 .

 ⠠ 蠠 ̠  ࠠ 堠 , 堠 , , 堠 蠠 .

頠 頠 젠 ⠠ 젠 , ⠠ 蠠 젠  堠 蠠 , ࠠ  蠠 頠 堠 頠 . 蠠 젠  젠 젠 ࠠ  .

頠 頠  ,  堠  堠 ,  頠 ,  蠠 . Ѡ  頠 蠠 Ϡ  , ꠠ 堠 堠 . , 頠  ꠠ 頠 , ꠠ 蠠 젠 젠 . 頠 砠 ꠠ  ࠠ 蠠 젠 蠠 . 𠠠 堠 蠠 蠠 蠠 򠠠 젠 ⠠ 頠 頠 蠠 ࠠ 蠠 ⠠ ⠠ ࠠ 頠 ࠠ ࠠ , 蠠 . ࠠ ꠠ 頠 堠 , 頠 ࠠ 頠 頠 , 蠠 蠠 - 堠 ࠠ .   蠠  堠 頠  蠠 蠠 頠 頠 , 堠 򠠠 堠 堠 . 堠 蠠 蠠 堠 , ࠠ 堠 ⠠ 蠠 蠠 蠠 .

頠 砠 頠 ⠠ ꠠ 堠 唠 . 頠 堠  (-)  ( 蠠  ). 蠠 젠 蠠 ꠠ , ꠠ 蠠 堠 . ࠠ  ࠠ ࠠ ⠠ -堠 (젠 ⠠ 蠠 젠 砠 ), ࠠ ⠠ 頠 頠 蠠 . 堠 젠 ࠠ 젠 堠 ࠠ ⠠ ꠠ , 蠠 砠 ࠠ . ,   ࠠ ࠠ  () -. 젠 , 頠 蠠 , . 蠠 堠 頠  , , ⠠  ࠠ 젠 ( , 蠠 ⠠ ) 堠 蠠 ⠠ . 젠 頠 젠 , 堠  ꠠ 젠 젠 頠 , 蠠 ꠠ 頠 . 頠 堠 堠 頠 ⠠ 蠠 , 蠠 堠 堠 .

⠠ 蠠 ⠠ ࠠ 젠 젠 堠 -, 蠠 , , ꠠ , ꠠ 蠠 -.

 ࠠ 堠  ⠠ 젠 . 蠠 젠 ࠠ 頠 蠠 ࠠ 堠 蠠 頠 .

堠 , , , 蠠 蠠 , , , , ࠠ 젠 . 堠  堠 , ࠠ Ѡ . , ꠠ , 堠 ⠠ , ࠠ 堠  ࠠ .

, 堠 蠠 ⠠ 堠 蠠 蠠 ,  ࠠ 堠 堠 :

堠 蠠 ⠠  堠 ;

⠠ ;

堠 蠠 , , , ꠠ 堠 , ࠠ ⠠ 堠 蠠  ;

堠 ꠠ ⠠ 頠 蠠 頠 .

堠 젠 젠 蠠 ⠠ 堠 . , 砠  ⠠ ࠠ ꠠ 蠠 蠠 ,  ࠠ 堠 : , , , , .

堠 젠 ࠠ ⠠ 蠠 ࠠ ꠠ 頠 蠠 ⠠ ⠠ . 堠 ⠠ - 堠 ᠠ  蠠 젠 . , 頠 ࠠ , .

蠠 , 堠 , , 堠 , 򔠠 堠 젠 () ⠠ 砠 .  蠠 , , 堠 ࠠ , .

  堠 ⠠ 蠠 , ,  蠠 . ࠠ ⠠ 蠠 䠠 蠠 ꠠ . 蠠 ࠠ 堠 ࠠ ꠠ 蠠 ,  蠠 젠 堠 堠 堠 . ꠠ , , ⠠ 蠠 堠 , 堠 頠 .   , ⠠ ࠠ 堠 , ꠠ 젠 젠 젠 ⠠ 頠 . 蠠 堠 ꠠ 堠 ,  䠠 ᠠ 蠠 頠 . , 蠠 , ࠠ , 堠 ࠠ 蠠 ...

 ꠠ ࠠ 堠  ,  頠 , ꠠ , 堠 - , 젠 堠 堠 .   젠 堠   堠 , 堠 젠 蠠  젠 젠 . , 堠 頠 ⠠ 頠 , 堠 젠 堠 젠  蠠 , , 젠 , 堠 蠠 蠠  , 堠 頠 蠠 ⠠ .

堠 ࠠ 젠 頠 ,  , 頠 ⠠ . - ⠠ 堠   ꠠ 堠  ꠠ 蠠 , 蠠 ⠠ 堠  ࠠ . 蠠 蠠 젠 ,   頠 蠠 ࠠ  ࠠ 堠 , ࠠ 堠 ꠠ 堠 ,  렠 . 蠠 , 堠 ⠠ 堠  , ⠠ 젠 堠 (), ⠠ 蠠 젠 堠 ,   蠠 , ⠠ 젠 堠 堠 . 堠 堠 ⠠ ⠠ ,  頠 ⠠ 젠   .

頠 ,  , , 蠠 頠 堠 ࠠ 堠 , ࠠ .   堠 ࠠ 蠠 堠 頠 .

⠠  ̠ 蠠 Ѡ ⠠ , , ⠠ 蠠  蠠 젠 , , 堠 . , 蠠 , ⠠ 蠠 ꠠ  ,    . 頠 젠 堠  ,  蠠 , ,  ⠠ , ࠠ 蠠 蠠 ⠠ 堠 . ⠠ , 堠 堠 砠 ⠠ ⠠ 蠠  蠠 蠠 蠠 ࠠ (ࠠ 0,5 1  ꠠ 80 ). 젠 , , 頠 , 堠 ࠠ 蠠 젠 ,  ,  . , , ,  蠠 ⠠ 젠 ,  젠 堠 堠 , 堠  堠 堠 .

  蠠 , ,  젠 ⠠ ࠠ ⠠ ꠠ 蠠 : 堠 , 堠 頠 , ࠠ ⠠ ⠠ 蠠 ...

堠 堠 堠 堠 蠠 堠 頠 蠠 , 頠 堠 : 頠 젠 젠 , 蠠 ࠠ 젠 , 󠠠 젠 , 頠 蠠 蠠 堠 .

2.7.3. ࠠ 젠 蠠 堠 蠠 砠 ⠠

ꠠ ⠠ 젠 , 젠 砠 頠 젠 堠 蠠 .  砠 頠 頠 ,  頠 頠 . 򠠠  ⠠ 頠 , 堠 ꠠ 젠  , ꠠ 蠠 : 堠 蠠  蠠 () ⠠ (頠 , 젠 蠠 頠 ) 蠠 () 蠠 (⠠ , ); 堠 蠠 ,  ࠠ 頠 ̠ 蠠 堠 ; 堠 蠠  蠠 , , 젠 蠠 ...  , ⠠ 頠 Ѡ 蠠 Ѡ ꠠ 蠠 堠 .   젠 堠 ,  ࠠ 󠠠 ⠠ , 젠 砠 ࠠ , .. 堠 ⠠ 堠 蠠 .

  頠  (, 堠 , , 蠠 頠 蠠 蠠 ..) 蠠 堠 (), 堠 䠠 蠠 堠 . ࠠ ⠠ 頠 頠 젠 ࠠ 젠 蠠 蠠 , 堠 . ࠠ 젠 .

⠠ 堠  ࠠ 堠 頠 䠠 蠠 .   , 젠 ,  , 堠 䠠 蠠 , 蠠 () , ࠠ ࠠ ࠠ ࠠ  ꠠ . , 젠 ࠠ ⠠ , ࠠ ⠠ 렠 F (F  , .. ).

  堠 頠 蠠 ࠠ Ѡ 堠  ꠠ ࠠ ࠠ (⠠ ࠠ 頠 ,  , 堠 ꠠ ). ࠠ ࠠ m ꠠ ( ) 蠠 n ⠠ ( ), 젠 , ࠠ 蠠 i-頠 蠠 蠠 j- , 頠  頠 i- ࠠ  ꠠ j- . Ѡ 젠  ,  ࠠ m 蠠 n ࠠ 堠 ࠠ , ࠠ  ⠠ ࠠ , ⠠ Ѡ 堠 ࠠ , 頠 頠 , 砠  ,  頠 頠 ࠠ .

堠 ,  젠 ⠠ 蠠 ࠠ ꠠ 젠 젠 젠 .  蠠 젠 젠 , 젠 , 蠠 堠 ࠠ 蠠  ꠠ . 蠠 젠 (), ⠠ ࠠ 젠 i, 堠 蠠 i  j .

 ꠠ 젠 Ѡ 蠠  . ⠠ 堠 ࠠ - 蠠 ⠠ . 蠠 蠠 堠 ⠠ 젠 ,  堠 蠠 堠 . , 젠  頠 頠  蠠  ࠠ .

2.7.6. 堠 蠠  蠠 蠠 ⠠

蠠 蠠 頠 蠠  蠠 򠠠 ࠠ ࠠ 젠 젠 . , ꠠ 頠 頠 ,   堠 蠠 蠠 堠 蠠 頠 .   , 砠 ⠠ 堠 ⠠ 堠 堠 .

1.  , , 젠  .

2.堠  , .. 堠 蠠 蠠 蠠 .

3.ࠠ ࠠ  , 젠 蠠 堠  .

4.砠 ࠠ , ࠠ 젠 堠 ࠠ , 蠠 堠  蠠 堠 .

5.砠 ࠠ .

6.堠  ,  ⠠ 頠 蠠 ࠠ ࠠ , ࠠ 젠 堠 堠 .

7.堠  ,  ࠠ ࠠ  , ࠠ 젠 堠 ࠠ ࠠ 젠 堠 .

8.堠 堠 .

9.堠 頠 頠 ( , 堠 蠠 ).

10.堠 ꠠ 蠠 蠠 蠠 蠠 ⠠ 堠  .

11.堠 ࠠ 頠 蠠 ( ) ⠠ 頠 蠠 ( ).

12.堠 , , ࠠ 蠠 ꠠ 頠 蠠 .

13.堠  蠠 ࠠ 蠠 蠠 -ࠠ 頠 , ,  젠 , ࠠ .

14.堠 堠 ࠠ 頠 .

15.⠠ ꠠ 젠 頠 .

蠠 蠠  堠 젠 頠  젠 젠 :

堠 蠠 - ;

堠  ࠠ ꠠ 頠 蠠 頠 ;

堠  蠠 .

  堠  堠  蠠 ࠠ ,  蠠 ࠠ  , ࠠ 頠  蠠 頠 頠 . 頠 ⠠ 蠠 蠠 ⠠ 堠 蠠  젠 蠠 蠠 .

䠠 蠠 蠠  , 堠  ꠠ 頠 蠠 젠 , 堠 蠠 頠 ࠠ 蠠 蠠 蠠 ⠠ .

ࠠ  蠠 蠠 ⠠ 蠠 ࠠ .

1.堠 頠 蠠 ࠠ 堠 .

2.堠 ࠠ ⠠ , 堠 ࠠ 蠠 ࠠ .

3. ꠠ , 蠠 堠 頠 蠠  .

4.堠 ⠠ ⠠ 蠠 頠 蠠 蠠 ࠠ  .

5.堠 , 頠 蠠 ⠠ ⠠  ( ⠠ ).

6.堠 ࠠ 蠠 蠠 頠 蠠 頠 蠠 , , ࠠ 蠠 ...

7.頠 ⠠ ࠠ 頠 蠠 ࠠ 頠 .

8.堠 頠 蠠 ࠠ Ġ  ⠠ 젠 .

9.堠  蠠 堠  젠 蠠 頠 .

10.堠 , , 蠠 蠠 , 頠 .

11.堠 ⠠  젠 蠠 頠 , 젠 堠 .

12. 蠠 .

󠠠 ࠠ ࠠ 蠠 ࠠ 蠠 蠠 蠠 -堠 , 堠 堠 頠 蠠 ⠠ 蠠 .

1. ,  , 򠠠  ࠠ 蠠 򠠠 頠 蠠 砠 (頠 ) 蠠 - ().

2.堠 ࠠ ࠠ 蠠 蠠 .

3.蠠 堠 -堠 蠠 堠 蠠 , ࠠ .

4.蠠 堠 ⠠ ⠠ 堠 頠 , ⠠ Ӡ .

5.堠 蠠 頠 蠠 ࠠ 蠠 堠 堠 2,5 젠 , , , , - 蠠 , ࠠ 堠  ,  蠠 頠 .

6.ࠠ 蠠 ⠠ ࠠ 堠 蠠 蠠 蠠  .

7.蠠 堠 頠 蠠 ࠠ , 堠 蠠 頠 蠠  , 堠 ࠠ 頠 蠠 蠠  .

8.堠 蠠 堠 堠 蠠 .

堠  蠠 ⠠  頠 , ࠠ 堠 堠 . , 堠 젠 堠 ,  堠 렠 蠠 堠 .

1.젠 젠 젠  堠 堠 , ⠠ 젠 ࠠ 蠠 蠠 頠 . 堠 蠠  蠠 蠠 蠠 蠠 砠 頠 頠 堠 堠 2젠 젠 . ࠠ 頠 蠠 젠 堠 堠 10.

2.蠠 堠 頠 蠠 젠 젠  頠  .  ,  堠  ࠠ  ࠠ 蠠 . 蠠 ࠠ , . 蠠  頠 蠠 堠 蠠 .

3.젠   堠 . 蠠 蠠 ⠠ 젠 堠 堠 젠 젠 젠  蠠 頠 .

4. 蠠 ࠠ , 堠 ࠠ  .  , 堠 񠠠 젠 씠 砠 .

5.堠 堠 ,  堠  蠠 .

6.  堠 ⠠ 蠠 蠠 蠠 蠠 蠠 蠠 (). , 蠠 蠠 堠 ⠠ ,  蠠  ,  ⠠ 젠 堠 . 頠 堠 堠 堠 ࠠ .

7.蠠  蠠 , 堠 蠠 렠 蠠 堠 .

蠠 堠  ࠠ 蠠  堠 .

1.젠 - 蠠  .

2. 蠠 ࠠ 堠 頠 .

3.堠 堠 젠 , ⠠ 堠 頠 頠 -.  堠 蠠 젠  頠 蠠 - , ࠠ 頠 蠠 , , 頠 .

4. 堠 頠 , ⠠ 堠 蠠 蠠   . 렠 ⠠ , ࠠ ⠠ 蠠  蠠 蠠 .

堠 堠 頠 蠠 蠠 ⠠ 堠  蠠 젠 堠 젠 ꠠ , ꠠ 蠠 . 頠 , 頠 蠠 蠠 ⠠   ࠠ 蠠 . 蠠 젠 䠠 ꠠ 젠 젠 蠠 , 堠 蠠 頠 蠠  .

3.

3.1 砠 頠 蠠  ࠠ ࠠ  頠

蠠 蠠  , , ⠠ ,  蠠 ࠠ  頠 ,  堠  젠 젠  .  ࠠ 頠  堠 , ࠠ ,  蠠 頠 젠 . 堠 젠 젠 蠠  ࠠ ꠠ  .

Ѡ 頠 , 堠  堠 堠  ࠠ ࠠ 堠 . ʠ :

;

堠 ;

;

頠 ;

堠 .

堠 ⠠  ࠠ ࠠ 頠 蠠 (⠠ , ) 堠  蠠  蠠 , 蠠 젠 .

  頠 堠 蠠  堠 , 堠 ࠠ ࠠ , ⠠ ,  , 蠠 ࠠ  . ࠠ 堠 , 蠠 , 堠 ࠠ  .

蠠 ࠠ ꠠ ⠠ 頠 堠  ࠠ ꠠ ࠠ 蠠 堠 .

 , 蠠 젠 堠 蠠 㠠  ⠠ 堠  . ࠠ ꠠ ⠠ , ꠠ ⠠ 堠 蠠 ⠠ 堠 (.. 堠 ), 蠠 堠  ⠠  砠 .

ࠠ 젠 젠 蠠 堠  ࠠ 蠠 蠠 젠 堠  젠 젠 ⠠ 蠠 . 堠 , , 頠  젠 젠 ,   蠠 蠠 蠠  頠 . 堠 堠 蠠 ࠠ ⠠ 堠 堠 蠠 蠠 젠 젠 堠 頠   ࠠ  . , ꠠ ꠠ 堠 堠 ⠠ ⠠  , 堠 堠 젠 ࠠ 젠 蠠 蠠 ࠠ 젠 젠 頠 .

蠠 蠠 頠 砠 ࠠ ,  蠠 蠠 ࠠ 頠 , 蠠 , ࠠ 젠 ࠠ 頠 .   堠 ࠠ 堠 , 젠 ⠠ 堠 , ꠠ ꠠ 堠 堠 堠  堠    堠 頠 .

堠 頠  蠠 ࠠ , ࠠ ⠠ 頠 堠 ࠠ 堠 頠 .

젠  ,  젠 ,  ࠠ 젠 頠 .   堠 頠  , 󠠠  堠 , ꠠ 堠 ꠠ 蠠 堠  ,  堠 .

蠠 堠 蠠 頠 , 蠠 堠 堠 蠠 堠 , : 堠 堠 堠 頠 , 堠  , ( ) 蠠 ࠠ 頠 .

, , 堠 頠 ࠠ , .젠 󠠠 ꠠ 堠 ࠠ 堠 . ⠠ ࠠ , 頠 , 蠠 頠 ࠠ ࠠ 堠 頠 . , 頠 頠  ,   蠠 蠠 . ࠠ ⠠ , ꠠ , 蠠 蠠 , 堠 蠠 .  ꠠ 젠 젠 , , 堠 . 蠠 젠 , ꠠ , 堠 砠 ;    蠠 堠  () . 젠 젠  , 젠 , ⠠ . 堠 蠠 . 堠  蠠 젠  蠠  . 堠 堠 ࠠ 頠 頠 蠠 젠  , ⠠ 堠  砠 蠠 堠 .

 ꠠ 젠 젠 蠠 젠 젠 .

堠 . 堠 蠠 堠 蠠 堠 ,  , ⠠ . 堠 蠠 . ⠠ 蠠  蠠  堠  .

堠 堠 ⠠ 蠠 蠠 , , ࠠ , ⠠ 蠠 ⠠ , ⠠ 頠 蠠 . . 堠 蠠 蠠 ࠠ ࠠ 頠 . 堠 頠  蠠 蠠  .

堠 堠 젠 , 蠠 頠 , 젠 ⠠ 蠠 頠 頠 . 堠 頠 , ࠠ 蠠 堠 堠  .

堠 . 堠 堠 , ⠠ 젠 , 蠠 堠 . 堠 . 堠 蠠 蠠 蠠 堠 ⠠ ⠠  .

堠 堠 , 堠 ࠠ 頠 蠠 堠 , 堠 堠 蠠 堠 . 젠 젠 ⠠ 堠 , ꠠ ꠠ ⠠ , ࠠ 堠 蠠 蠠 젠 . 젠 頠 ࠠ , 蠠 蠠 蠠 . 蠠 蠠 蠠 堠 50% 堠 頠 ࠠ 堠 ࠠ 20 40%, 젠 ࠠ , 堠 ࠠ 頠 , ࠠ 젠 堠 ࠠ . 蠠 蠠 蠠 堠 30% 堠 堠 頠  蠠 堠  .

堠 堠 堠 蠠 .

堠 : 蠠 , ࠠ ; 蠠 -頠 ; 堠 頠 ⠠ ࠠ -, - 蠠 ; 堠 ࠠ (); , , ⠠ 蠠 .

堠 : 堠 , 蠠 , ; 蠠 蠠 ; 蠠 堠 ࠠ , 堠 堠 ; ,  .

堠 : 堠 , 頠 ; 堠 , 堠 蠠 젠 .

堠 蠠 堠 堠 . , 堠 蠠 堠 堠 蠠  蠠 砠 ⠠ 頠 蠠 ࠠ 蠠 蠠 頠 600 1500 . 蠠 ⠠ ࠠ 蠠 ࠠ , , . 堠 蠠 ⠠ , ꠠ  砠 蠠 蠠 ⠠ . 堠 蠠 蠠 蠠 ꠠ 堠 蠠 80 120 , 蠠 젠 , 堠 ⠠ 젠 蠠 , ⠠ 頠 , 젠 , 堠  ꠠ 頠 .

堠 堠 蠠 35 70 . 堠 蠠 20 30 , ࠠ 堠 堠 蠠 10, 蠠 堠 蠠 5 . 蠠 젠   蠠 蠠 頠 頠 堠 .

堠 . 頠  젠 堠 , ⠠ 堠  .  堠 堠 堠   ࠠ 蠠 ꠠ 蠠 - . ꠠ  , 砠  頠 ⠠  , ࠠ 蠠 ࠠ (蠠 젠 ). ࠠ 蠠 ⠠ 堠  蠠 ࠠ 頠 蠠 ࠠ (젠 1800 蠠 젠 8000 10000 ). 蠠 蠠 堠 ࠠ   .  蠠 ࠠ ࠠ 蠠  ⠠ . , , 蠠 젠 堠  ࠠ 20 堠 堠  ,  ࠠ 1  蠠 .

堠  젠 , .. 젠 ࠠ 頠 蠠 ꠠ 蠠 頠 , 頠  . 頠 蠠 蠠 ࠠ , ࠠ ࠠ 蠠  ⠠ , ࠠ ,  , , , 蠠 蠠 蠠 ...

 , ࠠ ,   ,  , 蠠 砠 , 蠠 . () ⠠ ࠠ ꠠ  ࠠ 蠠 蠠  , ꠠ 蠠 , , , , , ࠠ 蠠 , 蠠 ꠠ , ,  頠 蠠  .

頠 蠠  蠠  . 蠠 젠 蠠  頠 ꠠ ࠠ 頠 蠠 , , ࠠ 堠  頠 ,  蠠 蠠 젠 , 堠  頠 . , 젠 堠 頠 , 젠 頠 頠 . Ƞ , 堠 堠 堠 堠 蠠 , ꠠ ꠠ 堠 ( ࠠ ), 젠 蠠 頠 .

堠 堠 젠 堠 ⠠ , 젠 蠠 , 堠 , 堠 , 젠 堠 堠 蠠 堠 頠 . , 蠠 ࠠ  ⠠ 頠 䠠  ,  頠 蠠 ࠠ ⠠ 젠 , ꠠ 蠠 렠  . 堠 䠠 젠  ࠠ 蠠 ࠠ 堠  ,   堠 堠 堠 堠 .

ʠ 젠 蠠 , 젠   , : 堠 , , , , 堠 , , ࠠ 蠠 堠 , , 堠 .

⠠ 堠 堠 ⠠  , 堠 堠 ࠠ , 젠  ꠠ  . 堠 蠠 蠠 ⠠ 蠠 蠠 젠  ࠠ 堠 堠 蠠 堠 , 堠 젠 頠 (堠 ,   , 蠠 頠 蠠 .. 堠  ,  蠠 젠 ).

堠 堠 , 蠠 젠 , 젠 頠 , 10 ࠠ (0,1 /.). 堠 ⠠ 蠠 125 栠 (3 /.) 蠠 . 蠠 ⠠ 頠 ࠠ  젠 堠 堠  堠 頠 10 . , 蠠 젠 젠 堠 1 ⠠ 堠 ࠠ 蠠 20 ⠠ ࠠ ,  18 , , 堠 蠠 ࠠ ⠠  17 , ࠠ ꠠ 堠  10 ࠠ  ࠠ ࠠ 蠠 堠 堠 11 .

堠 堠 ࠠ 堠 ⠠ 堠 ⠠ ࠠ 蠠 ࠠ 蠠 蠠 頠 蠠 . 堠 蠠 ࠠ ࠠ ࠠ 䠠 젠 젠 ꠠ 蠠 , ࠠ 蠠  蠠 .   젠 堠 堠 堠 砠 堠 ⠠ 蠠 堠 , 蠠 堠 ⠠ ( ⠠ , 蠠 頠 蠠 젠 堠 250 420 /., .. 6 10 /.).

堠 ⠠ ࠠ  蠠 , 砠 蠠 ,  堠 蠠 堠 ; 蠠 頠 蠠 , 蠠 頠 ; 蠠 蠠 ࠠ .

Ѡ 蠠 ,  젠 : ࠠ , ࠠ ⠠ 蠠 ࠠ 蠠 ⠠ . ࠠ ⠠ 頠 , ⠠ 頠 ⠠ 堠  , ⠠ ,  ; ⠠ ࠠ 蠠  , 蠠 .

⠠ 頠 , 蠠 , ࠠ 蠠 ⠠ , . 蠠 蠠 砠 頠 .

ࠠ , ࠠ 頠  . 砠 䠠 蠠 堠 ࠠ 頠 頠 砠 ⠠  蠠 堠 頠  蠠 蠠 .

ࠠ 蠠 ⠠ 젠 , 젠 蠠 ࠠ 蠠 ⠠ 蠠 젠 ( ) 젠 ⠠ .

堠 ⠠ 頠 , 頠 頠 . 頠 젠 蠠 蠠 蠠 ⠠ 蠠  , 蠠  ,   ꠠ  ࠠ  50 60 / 蠠 . 堠 ⠠  ࠠ 蠠 堠 堠 20%.

 蠠 蠠 ࠠ (1, 2, 3, 4, 蠠 5) ⠠ 蠠 蠠 頠 頠 蠠 . 堠 蠠 蠠 蠠 蠠 堠 () 1 蠠 2 蠠 , 堠 蠠 砠 .  蠠 젠 蠠 4 蠠 5 蠠 .

堠 ࠠ , ,  ࠠ 蠠 ࠠ .  頠 蠠 ⠠ 蠠 ࠠ . 蠠 젠 堠 ⠠   蠠 頠 頠 .

 頠 蠠 堠 ࠠ : , , , à 蠠 .

ʠ 젠 蠠 堠 , 堠 , 堠 堠 蠠 ꠠ  , 堠 , 蠠 , 蠠 蠠 ࠠ   , , 蠠 蠠 蠠  , 蠠 ..

ʠ 젠 蠠 蠠 蠠 蠠 頠 蠠 蠠 頠 , -堠 蠠 蠠 頠 ࠠ 蠠 頠 蠠 ⠠ 28 120 ; 堠 蠠 堠 , 蠠 蠠  , 蠠 頠 蠠 .

ʠ 젠 蠠   , , , 堠 蠠 堠 ; 堠 , 堠  ; 堠  ⠠ .

ʠ 젠 蠠 à 堠 , 蠠 , 堠 蠠 堠 , ࠠ 堠 .

ʠ 젠 蠠 Ġ  頠 堠 ⠠ 蠠 , 堠 젠 頠 .

堠 蠠 ⠠ 젠 蠠 頠 蠠 . 蠠 ⠠ ⠠ 頠 , à 蠠 Ġ 蠠 蠠 .

頠 蠠  頠 蠠  젠  ࠠ ࠠ  頠 .

젠 ,  䠠 ࠠ 堠 , ⠠   ,  -頠 300 , 젠 젠 젠 ࠠ   ࠠ 蠠 100 .

堠 ࠠ , , 砠 , 렠 蠠 蠠 , 堠 堠 , 젠 蠠 1,5 , , 蠠 蠠 ࠠ 砠 , 蠠 蠠 堠 堠 . 堠  ⠠ 頠 .

  堠 ࠠ 頠 頠 , 頠 , 蠠 堠 堠 .

蠠 2, 蠠 ࠠ   蠠 . 蠠 ࠠ 堠 35%.

:

1. 젠 頠 頠 蠠 堠 堠 頠 , ࠠ 蠠 ,  젠 堠 堠 堠   ࠠ :

Rmin = 4 0,1 = 3,9

 젠 頠 頠 蠠 堠 堠 堠 ࠠ 蠠 3,9 젠  q = 0,3

.max = 1200 /.;

max = 25

2. 젠 蠠 ,  젠  . 堠 ꠠ 1頠 蠠 .

3. , , 頠 蠠 .  젠 젠 頠 ꠠ 蠠 .

4. 젠 ⠠ 蠠 ࠠ , 堠 砠 ⠠ 蠠 젠 .   젠 堠 蠠 , 堠 , 蠠 , 堠 砠 ࠠ 蠠 堠 ⠠ 頠 .

5. 젠  ,  堠 堠 .

, ,  蠠 堠 , 堠 ⠠ 頠 , 蠠 堠  ࠠ q = 300  ࠠ 頠 290 /., 렠 堠 蠠 頠 , 1050 /..

6. 젠 렠 蠠 ࠠ ꠠ 󠠠  , 堠 ⠠ , 蠠 젠 堠 ᠠ 蠠 .

젠 蠠  ࠠ ꠠ .lim = 215 /.. .. .lim < .max,  ,  頠 ⠠ ꠠ  ࠠ 頠 .

7. 젠 ࠠ 򠠠 頠 蠠 젠 젠 젠 , , ⠠ 젠 , 25 . , , 堠 ࠠ 堠 .

8. 젠 󠠠 , ⠠ 頠 . 砠 ,  堠 ࠠ  堠 , 頠 頠 1200 /., ࠠ 蠠 ࠠ 蠠 ࠠ ࠠ 35%,  ,  頠 ࠠ ⠠ 堠 .

,

- 蠠

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

(-

)

-

-

-

-

, -

-

-

-

-

-

-

렠 -蠠 ꠠ -

-

-

蠠 蠠 .max

ࠠ -

,

-頠 .

:

-

,-

,

-

, -

-

- 3

; -

-

-

,

-

-

1,5 ;

-

1

蠠 堠 -

, -

-

-

290

/.

1050

215

/.

-

3.2

ࠠ 蠠   堠  頠 蠠  ࠠ .

1. ࠠ 堠 蠠 젠 堠 頠 蠠 頠 頠 ⠠ 1200 /.젠 蠠 堠 堠 頠 25 ,  ࠠ . 頠 ⠠ 堠 젠  ࠠ ⠠ 堠 .

2. 頠 ⠠ ꠠ , .. 렠  蠠 300 /.,   堠  .

3. ࠠ , 堠 蠠 , ࠠ , ⠠ 蠠 , 堠 砠 ࠠ 蠠 堠 ⠠ 頠 , ࠠ , .

4.  렠 蠠  ࠠ  1200 /., 堠 :

ࠠ ;

堠 堠 蠠 ࠠ ;

蠠 頠  頠 ;

蠠 ⠠ 堠 堠 堠 (  ⠠ ,  ࠠ ⠠ 蠠 ࠠ ࠠ 頠 蠠 ).

4. ࠠ ࠠ 蠠 . ࠠ

  堠 蠠 , , 蠠 頠 , 堠  頠 頠  젠 蠠 . 頠 ; 頠 ⠠  ࠠ , , ꠠ 頠 蠠  . Ѡ ⠠  堠 , 堠 ࠠ 蠠  蠠 񠠠 堠 젠 젠 蠠 蠠 ࠠ 젠 ࠠ .

蠠 蠠 頠 頠 蠠 , 堠 頠 蠠 젠 .

Ѡ ⠠ 蠠 蠠 젠   堠 , 堠 ࠠ 頠  堠 , ࠠ , 堠 蠠 頠 蠠 . 堠 , ⠠ 蠠 頠  젠 蠠 .

蠠 堠 , 蠠 蠠 蠠 , ࠠ , 蠠 蠠 蠠 , ࠠ . 蠠 蠠  ⠠ 蠠 䠠 젠 , ⠠  젠 .

젠 젠 蠠 ⠠ 堠 堠 堠 , ,  , 蠠 堠 蠠 蠠 . 젠 젠 蠠 , , ࠠ , 堠 ⠠ 砠 ⠠ 蠠 頠 .

  蠠  ࠠ 蠠 堠  ,  蠠 , ࠠ 堠 񠠠  蠠 堠 󠠠 , ࠠ , 堠 ⠠ 蠠 . ʠ 젠 蠠 蠠 堠 堠 , ࠠ , , 蠠 .

堠  ⠠ ࠠ 蠠  堠  蠠 蠠 .   젠 堠  젠 ⠠ 頠 . ࠠ , 頠 ⠠  蠠 蠠 蠠 , ࠠ 蠠 . , ⠠ 젠 堠    堠 蠠 ⠠ 蠠 , ࠠ 堠 ⠠ . , , ꠠ 蠠 , ࠠ  .  ꠠ 頠 蠠 蠠  , 堠 堠   蠠 堠  ࠠ 蠠 蠠  . 堠 頠 蠠 ࠠ 蠠 젠 젠  蠠  頠 蠠 頠 蠠 , 砠 , ⠠ 堠 蠠  ࠠ 堠 蠠  蠠 蠠 , 頠 蠠 頠 蠠 蠠 ࠠ 蠠 , ⠠ 頠 .

蠠 頠 젠  頠 ,  堠 ⠠ 頠 蠠 頠 . 堠   堠 . 젠 젠 堠  ࠠ 頠 蠠 3,5 . ࠠ  250 , 5 . 蠠  , 頠  80 , 堠 堠  4 .

:

堠 堠 ⠠ ࠠ 堠 蠠 蠠 .

ࠠ 頠 . , , 蠠 堠 ࠠ ࠠ ,  ࠠ  ⠠ 頠 堠 .

5.

堠  頠   蠠 렠 ࠠ 蠠 蠠  ࠠ .  蠠 堠 堠 ࠠ  蠠 . 蠠 頠 , 蠠 蠠 蠠 堠   .

堠 蠠 蠠 ꠠ 젠 蠠 蠠 ⠠ 蠠 . ,  ⠠ 堠 堠 砠 蠠 頠 , ⠠ 堠 頠 堠 蠠 젠 . 堠 頠 ᠠ  ⠠ .. 堠 堠 , 堠 蠠 蠠 頠 , ࠠ 젠 蠠 㠠 ࠠ (, ⠠  ). , 堠 蠠 頠   ,  堠 頠 蠠 蠠   . 堠 , ꠠ 堠 ꠠ  ࠠ ꠠ 頠 , ࠠ ⠠ 蠠 蠠 ࠠ  ࠠ ꠠ 頠 , ࠠ , ࠠ 蠠  ࠠ 蠠 .

ࠠ ꠠ 砠 蠠 頠 堠 堠 堠  頠 蠠 젠 , 젠 ꠠ  ࠠ 젠 .

ࠠ 頠 頠 蠠 ⠠ 젠 젠 .   蠠  ࠠ , 頠 頠  ,  ꠠ 頠 蠠 頠   ꠠ , 頠 젠  頠 蠠 , 蠠 , , 堠   , ࠠ  ࠠ .

蠠 蠠 堠 蠠 ⠠ 蠠 젠 , 蠠 ꠠ 堠 蠠 堠 - , , . 堠 , 頠 ࠠ 젠 젠 ⠠ , 蠠 ., ࠠ , ࠠ 젠 蠠 젠 蠠 .

蠠 蠠 ⠠ 蠠 ࠠ  堠 ꠠ 򠠠 ࠠ ,   젠 , ꠠ 頠 , 堠 ⠠ 蠠 堠 .  , , .

⠠ , 蠠 堠  頠 頠 . 堠 , ࠠ 蠠 蠠 蠠 蠠 砠 蠠 蠠 堠 .   堠 蠠  ࠠ 頠  ࠠ 蠠 ࠠ 頠 蠠 蠠 蠠 ࠠ ꠠ 蠠 堠 頠 .

堠 蠠 , ࠠ , ꠠ 蠠 ꠠ ⠠ ⠠ 堠 蠠 ࠠ ࠠ , ꠠ 蠠 蠠  蠠 . 堠 , ࠠ  , ࠠ , 堠 ⠠ 蠠 堠  ࠠ ⠠ 堠 頠 .

頠 頠 ⠠ 젠 堠  蠠 .   頠 蠠 蠠 堠 .

, , , . . , , , , , .

堠 젠 , 頠 蠠 , . ,  堠 頠 ࠠ 頠  젠 젠 . 堠 蠠 蠠 ⠠ ⠠ ࠠ . ࠠ  ࠠ 頠 蠠  ࠠ 堠 . , 蠠 젠 頠 ,  頠  .

,  ⠠ 蠠 򠠠  蠠 . 堠 ࠠ , ࠠ ꠠ , ,  蠠 頠 蠠 頠 . 젠 , 堠 ,  , 頠 , 頠 ࠠ 堠  򠠠 .

ࠠ ࠠ 堠 ࠠ 頠 蠠 젠 蠠 堠 . 堠 , , ࠠ 堠 頠 蠠 ࠠ 蠠 :

= + + , 堠

, .;

, .;

ࠠ ꠠ , 蠠 頠 頠 堠 堠 500000 .

젠 젠  ࠠ ࠠ , 頠 젠 ࠠ 䠠  . 蠠 蠠  ࠠ 蠠  .

ࠠ  ࠠ (), 頠 頠 蠠 , ࠠ 栠 蠠 (d), ࠠ 蠠 ࠠ ࠠ 蠠 蠠   ࠠ () 蠠 蠠 ࠠ 젠 頠 頠 蠠 ⠠ 젠 堠 ࠠ 蠠 (q):

= a*f(d,c,q),

堠 ࠠ ⠠ 0  1, ࠠ f(d,c,q) 򠠠 . 젠 堠 ࠠ 젠 젠 ࠠ .

蠠 堠 ,  ࠠ  ꠠ 1, 蠠 堠 ,  ࠠ ꠠ 0. f(d,c,q)  頠  젠 d, c 蠠 q, ..:

f(d,c,q) = f(d) + f(c) + f(q)

頠 䠠 蠠 f(d,c,q) 頠 .   堠 ⠠ ࠠ 頠 頠 砠 d, c, 蠠 q.

ࠠ ࠠ 頠 , , 蠠 ࠠ 堠 . 頠 ࠠ ࠠ ࠠ 堠 ,  堠 젠  ࠠ  . ࠠ ࠠ   ࠠ 砠 頠 ࠠ 頠 ⠠ 堠 ࠠ , .. 砠 . ꠠ 蠠 3 5%.

ࠠ  ࠠ  砠 򠠠  ࠠ 頠 蠠  ࠠ ⠠ 蠠 젠 蠠 , 蠠 頠 .

堠  頠 頠 蠠 ⠠ 蠠 젠 頠 頠 頠 蠠 蠠 堠 頠  , ⠠ 6 ࠠ 蠠 ⠠ 蠠 栠 , 堠 , 頠 ,  堠 ⠠ 堠 頠 ࠠ 頠 . 堠 젠 ࠠ 젠 蠠 堠 堠 ⠠ 蠠 栠 頠 :

Rs = (R/S)*100,

Rs ࠠ 蠠 򠠠 蠠 ;

R ࠠ ;

S 栠 ࠠ 젠 , ⠠ 蠠 .

, ࠠ 蠠 (Rt),  ࠠ ࠠ 䠠 (t0 tn), :

Rt = Rti = Rs*Sti

, , , 젠 젠 蠠 蠠 (Rs)  堠 蠠 蠠 ⠠ 頠 蠠 頠 蠠 蠠 蠠 砠 蠠 蠠 蠠 蠠 . 堠 堠 ⠠ 蠠 ꠠ 蠠 栠 頠 ⠠ . , , 頠 堠 蠠 蠠 ⠠ ࠠ ⠠   堠 , 젠 ⠠ .

頠 ᠠ 蠠 蠠 ࠠ 堠 頠 頠 蠠 .

砠 蠠 ࠠ , ࠠ , ࠠ .  젠  ࠠ 頠 蠠 ࠠ 堠 頠 ,  젠 蠠 ࠠ 蠠 , 頠  , ꠠ 蠠 蠠 󠠠 ࠠ 頠 堠 頠 蠠 ࠠ 䠠 .

ࠠ ࠠ ⠠ 蠠 蠠 ࠠ ( 蠠 ), 蠠  , 蠠 ࠠ , ⠠  頠 .

頠 ꠠ , 젠 , ,  򠠠 堠 , 堠   . 젠 , 젠 堠 蠠 蠠    .   젠 堠 堠 堠 頠 頠 蠠 蠠 ꠠ 젠 젠 , ࠠ ⠠ (堠 頠 蠠 )  蠠 堠 ,  堠 ࠠ 堠 蠠 堠 젠 . 젠 , 蠠  젠 :

P < Ka ,

ࠠ  ;

堠 ⠠ 頠 ;

 ࠠ ࠠ 堠 堠 ;

 , ,  ࠠ 蠠 堠 蠠 堠 , 1 2% ⠠ 堠 堠 頠 堠  頠 , 蠠  40 50% , 頠 ࠠ 堠  .  ࠠ 蠠   ࠠ 堠 堠  .

 蠠 堠  , 堠 ⠠ ,  頠 蠠 堠 蠠 ࠠ 頠 頠 , , 젠 , 堠 頠 頠 .   젠 堠  ࠠ ࠠ 蠠 ⠠ 頠 . ࠠ 蠠  ࠠ 頠  ࠠ 񠠠 ⠠ .

  ࠠ ⠠ 젠 , 젠 ࠠ , 堠 蠠  . 젠 堠  ⠠ ⠠ 堠 蠠 젠 堠  頠 堠 蠠 ⠠ 젠 堠 堠 , 堠 , 젠 蠠 젠 堠 ࠠ 򠠠 . , , 蠠  蠠 蠠 蠠 .   頠 , ࠠ , 蠠 堠 頠 蠠 蠠 蠠  ࠠ ꠠ 頠 蠠 ⠠ 堠 25  50%.

  堠 蠠  堠 頠 頠 頠 , 頠 젠  , ࠠ , 蠠 頠 , 頠 젠 젠 . ࠠ  젠 .

; ; F , 頠 젠  , ; F 蠠 ࠠ ; ⠠ 堠 ࠠ ꠠ .

蠠 頠 蠠 젠 젠 ࠠ 堠 堠 蠠 堠 蠠  ⠠ ,  Fà F :

lim P/Pp = (1 F)*C/(1 F)*C = 1

FàF

蠠 蠠 F 蠠 F, .. 蠠 蠠 蠠   ࠠ ࠠ , .   젠 , ࠠ ࠠ ꠠ (F, ꠠ 蠠 堠 ꠠ , ꠠ , ..

lim P/Pp = (1 F)*C/(1 F)*C = 0

Fà1

ࠠ 蠠 ࠠ 頠 頠 頠 蠠 頠 頠 蠠 򠠠 .

= (1 F)/(1 F)

 堠 頠 頠 蠠 蠠 堠 ࠠ .

蠠 砠 ⠠ 蠠 蠠 , 頠 蠠 堠 蠠 ࠠ . 頠 젠 頠 .

䠠 頠 蠠 ࠠ 堠 5  10 . ꠠ 򠠠 , 蠠 堠  ࠠ 堠  ࠠ 蠠 蠠 ,  堠 ࠠ .

  頠 頠 頠 . 堠 頠 頠 蠠 砠 : 堠  , 頠 , 蠠 堠 . 堠 ⠠ 젠 堠 ࠠ 堠   , ࠠ 堠 ࠠ ꠠ  蠠 , , , ࠠ .

蠠 蠠 ࠠ 頠 頠 蠠 蠠  ࠠ  ࠠ 젠 ࠠ  蠠 堠  . 堠 蠠 蠠 蠠 蠠 , ࠠ    ,  젠 .

⠠ 堠  ࠠ 蠠 Ҡ 堠 , 頠 ⠠ n , ࠠ ,  . ࠠ ࠠ ࠠ  ࠠ :

= /n + /n + 1 + 1,

1 ࠠ , 堠 蠠 ;

1 ࠠ 蠠  ⠠ .

,  ࠠ ࠠ 砠 蠠 蠠 + .

堠 (1 + 1) ࠠ 򠠠 頠 頠 蠠 頠  .

. . , . , , , .

30%.

젠  堠 .

ࠠ 堠   ࠠ 󠠠 頠 蠠 100 . 砠 ⠠  , 頠 ⠠ 600000 , ,  ࠠ ࠠ  3500 ,  ࠠ 䠠 蠠 젠   ࠠ ⠠ 350 .

10% , , , 35 . 35% , 134750 .

, 젠 , ⠠ , ࠠ 젠 ,  ࠠ 頠 750 頠 ⠠ , .. ⠠ 堠 䠠 䠠 頠 ,  75 .

砠 ,  ࠠ   ࠠ 頠 蠠 400 , ࠠ 堠  ࠠ 6 , ,  蠠 ࠠ , 堠 ࠠ   , 1200 / 蠠 120 頠 ࠠ 頠 .

30% , 105 .

772500 . , , 1004250 , .

  蠠  젠 , ⠠    堠 蠠  砠 ࠠ .

堠 堠 堠 ࠠ 頠 , ⠠ , 頠 ࠠ 頠 頠 . 堠 ࠠ 頠 頠 蠠 蠠 蠠 堠 堠 ࠠ .



[1] ExecuteDialog ( Borlan Pascal) , .. .

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