. , , ,

,,,

- 10 / —

- . ..

:

B

B -

B 10 /

Ҡ .. -44

..

ɠ ____________________________

:

______________________________________________

______________________________________________

______________________________________________

B1

2 ................................................2

3 . .........................3

4 - ............................4

5 ..................................9

5.1 ..9

5.2 .......................11

5.3 ..................13

5.4 .........13

5.5 . .....................................15

6 ...........15

6.1 ...................................15

6.2 ...................................18

6.3 ...................20

6.4 . .......................22

6.5 . .................24

6.6 ...............................27

7 . ....................................28

7.1 ..................................28

7.2 . ...............................28

7.3 . ........................28

7.4 , . ..............................29

7.4.0 - . ....29

7.4.1 - ..............30

7.4.2 - ...............................30

7.4.3 - ..............31

7.4.4 - ...............................31

7.4.5 - ...............................31

7.4.6 - ............................31

7.4.7 - .............32

7.4.6 - ....................32

7.4.8 - ..............32

7.4.8 - ...32

7.4.9 - ....................32

7.4.10 - ..33

7.4.11 - ...................33

7.4.12 -- ..33

7.4.13 -- ..34

7.4.14 - .........................34

7.4.15 - .....................................34

7.5 . ........................................35

7.5.1 1 - .................35

7.5.2 2 - .....36

7.6 . ......................................37

7.7 ...............................................38

8 ..............................................39

................................................40


B2

-

-

. -

.

-

. -

,

, -

.

, -

, ,

-

.

-

. -

( , -

.) -

: -

, -

, ..

-

.

, ,

- .

, -

, , ..


B3 .

1 -

, ,

. -

,

, .

,

.

, -

.

() , -

, .

,

5000 / , 25

. 3, -

4 .

5000 / 2 -

, 25. -

2, -

3 .

2 - 8

. 25-100


3 1 12-50
3 2 3.

,

, -

.


B4 -

B .

1. -

┌────────────────────────┬─────────────────────────────────────────┐

│ │ Ѡ │

│ ├─────┬─────┬─────┬─────┬─────┬─────┬─────┤

│ │ 0 │ 20 │ 40 │ 60 │ 80 │ 100 │ 120 │

├────────────────────────┴─────┴─────┴─────┴─────┴─────┴─────┴─────┤

│렠 │

├────────────────────────┬─────┬─────┬─────┬─────┬─────┬─────┬─────┤

│ [/3]│ 801│ 785│ 768│ 752│ 735│ 718│ 700│

├────────────────────────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┤

│ [*]│ 4.60│ 2.39│ 1.33│ 3.26│ 0.80│ 0.38│ 0.29│

├────────────────────────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┤

│ [/*]│ 2363│ 2661│ 2958│ 3256│ 3549│ 3842│ 4136│

├────────────────────────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┤

│[/*]│0.153│0.151│0.147│0.144│0.141│0.137│0.134│

├────────────────────────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┤

│.*1000 [/]│ 24.5│ 22.6│ 20.9│ 19.3│ 17.6│ 15.7│ 14.0│

├────────────────────────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┤

│  │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │

│*1000 [1/K]│ 1.01│ 1.05│ 1.08│ 1.12│ 1.16│ 1.20│ 1.27│

├────────────────────────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┤

│dH [K/]│774.4│749.3│724.2│699.1│669.8│636.3│602.8│

├────────────────────────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┤

│ ࠠ []│ 1.2│ 4.3│ 14.1│ 38.5│ 92.3│194.7│372.0│

├────────────────────────┴─────┴─────┴─────┴─────┴─────┴─────┴─────┤

│ │

├────────────────────────┬─────┬─────┬─────┬─────┬─────┬─────┬─────┤

│ [/3]│ 817│ 803│ 788│ 774│ 759│ 742│ 728│

├────────────────────────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┤

│ [*]│ 7.0│ 4.1│ 2.4 │ 1.48│ 1.0│ 0.7│ 0.5│

├────────────────────────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┤

│ [/*]│ 2053│ 2346│ 2640│ 2933│ 3268│ 3561│ 3855│

├────────────────────────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┤

│[/*]│0.144│0.142│0.138│0.135│0.131│0.128│0.125│

├────────────────────────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┤

│.*1000 [/]│ 26.2│ 24.6│ 22.9│ 21.2│ 19.5│ 17.8│ 16.0│

├────────────────────────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┤

│  │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │

│*1000 [1/K]│ 0.85│ 0.88│ 0.91│ 0.95│ 0.99│ 1.05│ 1.12│

├────────────────────────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┤

│dH [K/]│ 681│ 664│ 643│ 625│ 604│ 587│ 540│

├────────────────────────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┼─────┤

│ ࠠ []│ │ 0.6│ 2.5│ 8.0│ 22.7│ 60.0│160.0│

└────────────────────────┴─────┴─────┴─────┴─────┴─────┴─────┴─────┘

[2] [3]


2 C - [4]

┌─────────┬─────────┬──────────┬──────────┬──────────┐

│ ՠ │ Y │ t │ 1 │ 2 │

├─────────┼─────────┼──────────┼──────────┼──────────┤

│ 0.00 │ 00.00 │ 108.1 │ │ │

│ 4.65 │ 11.20 │ 106.2 │ 1.02 │ 1.00 │

│ 11.55 │ 25.10 │ 103.4 │ 1.01 │ 1.01 │

│ 21.85 │ 42.70 │ 99.9 │ 1.02 │ 1.00 │

│ 23.05 │ 44.10 │ 99.4 │ 1.02 │ 1.01 │

│ 34.55 │ 58.45 │ 95.8 │ 1.02 │ 1.02 │

│ 38.70 │ 62.90 │ 94.9 │ 1.01 │ 1.00 │

│ 44.10 │ 67.70 │ 93.7 │ 1.00 │ 1.00 │

│ 54.55 │ 75.80 │ 90.9 │ 1.01 │ 1.03 │

│ 63.80 │ 82.45 │ 88.7 │ 1.02 │ 1.04 │

│ 74.50 │ 88.75 │ 86.9 │ 1.00 │ 1.01 │

│ 82.75 │ 92.95 │ 85.4 │ 1.00 │ 1.00 │

│ 94.85 │ 98.05 │ 83.2 │ 1.01 │ 1.02 │

│ 100.00 │ 100.00 │ 82.4 │ │ │

└─────────┴─────────┴──────────┴──────────┴──────────┘

B5


B.

[1]5.1 .

W -

:

F = P + W

F*x'(f) = P*x'(p) + W*x'(w)

W = F*(x'(p)-x'(f))/(x'(p)-x'(w))

W = 10000*(0.95-0.50)/(0.95-0.05) = 5000 / 1.3889 /

P = F - W = 10000-5000 = 5000 / 1.3889 /

1 = 60.096 / -

2 = 74.123 / -

x(i) = x'(i)/M1/(x'(i)/M1+(1-x'(i))/M2)

x(f) = 0.50/60.096/(0.50/60.096+0.50/74.123)=0.552254

x(p) = 0.95/60.096/(0.95/60.096+0.05/74.123)=0.959075

x(w) = 0.05/60.096/(0.05/60.096+0.95/74.123)=0.060959

R, R -

- , -

(-

) = R/Rmin. N(R+1)

(N - -

, , R+1 - ,

, ).

Rmin = (x(p)-y~(f))/((y~(f)-x(f))

Rmin = (0.9592254-0.763054)/(0.763054-0.552254) = 0.93

┌─────┬──────┬──────┬────────┬─────┬──────┬──────┬─────────┐

│⠠ │R │N │N(R+1) │⠠ │R │N │N(R+1) │

├─────┼──────┼──────┼────────┼─────┼──────┼──────┼─────────┤

│1.076│1.0009│16.693│33.40119│1.542│1.4337│10.698│26.03575 │

│1.116│1.0377│15.206│30.98661│1.581│1.4705│10.503│25.94700 │

│1.136│1.0561│14.756│30.34009│1.611│1.4981│10.355│25.86845 │

│1.155│1.0745│14.358│29.78725│1.616│1.5027│10.338│25.85303 │

│1.203│1.1160│13.475│28.51304│1.626│1.5119│10.279│25.82015 │

│1.228│1.1344│13.145│28.05646│1.636│1.5211│10.227│25.78356 │

│1.237│1.1436│12.993│27.85331│1.646│1.5303│10.173│25.74266 │

│1.246│1.1528│12.906│27.78414│1.664│1.5441│10.091│25.67426 │

│1.255│1.1620│12.823│27.72433│@1.675│1.5580│10.011│25.60751*│

│1.269│1.1804│12.665│27.61655│1.685│1.5672│ 9.976│25.61147 │

│1.289│1.1988│12.407│27.28147│1.737│1.6086│ 9.853│25.70312 │

│1.324│1.2311│11.954│26.67192│1.735│1.6132│ 9.841│25.71647 │

│1.353│1.2587│11.744│26.52716│1.755│1.6270│ 9.803│25.75300 │

│1.457│1.3554│11.027│25.97313│1.764│1.6408│ 9.766│25.79084 │

│1.507│1.4014│10.839│26.00787│1.804│1.6777│ 9.671│25.89577 │

└─────┴──────┴──────┴────────┴─────────────────────────────┘

Ropt N(R+1) N R.

L G -

, :

L = PRM/Mp

L = PRM/Mp + FM/Mf

x = (x(f)+x(p))/2 = (0.552254+0.959075)/2=0.7557 /

x = (x(f)+x(w))/2 = (0.552254+0.060959)/2=0.3066 /

M = M1*x+M2(1-x) = 0.7557*60.096+(1-0.7557)*74.123=63.52 /

M = M1*x+M2(1-x) = 0.3066*60.096+(1-0.3066)*74.123=69.82 /

Mp = x(p)*M1 + (1-x(p))*M2

Mf = x(f)*M1 + (1-x(f))*M2

Mw = x(w)*M1 + (1-x(w))*M2

Mp = 0.959075*60.096+(1-0.959075)*74.123=60.67 /

Mf = 0.552254*60.096+(1-0.552254)*74.123=66.38 /

Mw = 0.060959*60.096+(1-0.060959)*74.123=73.28 /

L = 5000*1.558*63.52/3600/60.67 = 2.2655 /

L = 5000*1.558*69.82/3600/60.67+10000*69.82/3600/66.38=5.4120 /

G = P(R+1)M()/

G = P(R+1)M()/

= ((f)+(p))/2 = (0.714803+0.959075)/2=0.837 /

= ((f)+(w))/2 = (0.714803+0.060959)/2=0.388 /

M() = M1* + M2(1-)

M() = M1* + M2(1-)

M() = 0.837*60.096+(1-0.837)*74.123 = 62.383 /

M() = 0.388*60.096+(1-0.388)*74.123 = 68.682 /

G = 5000*(1+1.558)*62.383/3600/60.67 = 3.6531 /

G = 5000*(1+1.558)*68.682/3600/60.67 = 4.0220 /

G = (G + G)/2 = (3.6531+4.0220)/2 = 3.8376 /

i - i

xi/yi - i /

[1]5.2

-

5.35 [1]

w = [0.0155/d


2/3]*(px/py*h)
1/2

d -

h -

t(f) = 90.72

t(w) = 105.59

t(p) = 83.03 C

t = (t(f)+t(p))/2 = (90.72+83.03)/2 = 86.875 C

t = (t(f)+t(w))/2 = (90.72+105.59)/2 = 98.155 C

x' = (x'(f)+x'(p))/2 = (0.50+0.95)/2 = 0.725 /

x' = (x'(f)+x'(w))/2 = (0.50+0.05)/2 = 0.275 /

px() = 735.6 /3

p() = 737 /3

p(f) = 737.9 /


3

p(w) = 736.8 /


3

p(p) = 733.6 /


3

d = x'd(1)+(1-x')*d(2)

d(f) = 623.4 /

d(w) = 624.3 /

d(p) = 661.6 /

t = (t(f)+t(w))/2 = (96.45+107.12)/2 = 101.785 C

t = (t(f)+t(p))/2 = (96.45+84.13)/2 = 90.29 C

py() = M()*To/(22.4*(To+t)

py() = M()*To/(22.4*(To+t)

py() = 62.383*273/(22.4*(273.15+90.29)) = 2.092 /


3

py() = 68.682*273/(22.4*(273.15+101.785)) = 2.233 /


3

() = 60.67*273/(22.4*(273.15+84.13)) = 2.070


/
3

(f) = 66.38*273/(22.4*(273.15+96.45)) = 2.189 /


3

(w) = 73.28*273/(22.4*(273.15+107.2)) = 2.348 /


3

Vy() = G/py() = 3.6531/2.092 = 1.747 3/c

Vy() = G/py() = 4.0220/2.233 = 1.801 3/c

Vy = (1.801+1.747)/2 = 1.774


3/c

t = ((t+t)+(t+t))/4

t = (98.155+86.875+101.785+90.29)/4 = 94.28 C

t= (t+t)/2 = (98.155+86.875)/2 = 92.52

ty= (t+t)/2 = (101.785+90.29)/2 = 96.04 C

w = [0.0155/dk


2/3]*sqrt(px/py*(H-1))

w = 0.0155/0.08**(2/3)*sqrt(735.6/2.092*(0.3-0.07)) = 0.751 /

w = 0.0155/0.08**(2/3)*sqrt(737/2.233*(0.3-0.07)) = 0.727 /

d = sqrt(4*G/(3.1415*w*py()))

d = sqrt(4*G/(3.1415*w*py()))

d = sqrt(4*3.6531/(3.1415*0.751*2.092)) = 1.72

d = sqrt(4*4.0220/(3.1415*0.727*2.233)) = 1.78

1.8 . -

:

w = (w+w)/2*(d/d) = (0.751+0.727)/2*sqr(1.78/1.8) = 0.723 /


5.2 [1] 1800

- :

┌─────────────────────────────────────────┬───────────┬────┬────────┐

│ ││ │ │

├─────────────────────────────────────────┼───────────┼────┼────────┤

│ │ D │ │ 1.8 │

│ │ │ │ 2.54 │

│ ࠠ │ L │ │ 25.88 │

│ 蠠 │ │ │ 1.86 │

│ ࠠ │ Lc │ │ 1.419 │

│ ࠠ │ │ │ 0.334 │

│ 蠠 │ S򠠠 │ │ 0.252 │

│ │ Fc │ % │ 9.92 │

│ࠠ │ m │ │ 176 │

│ 蠠 │ 򠠠 │ │ 0.6 │

│ │ │ │ │

│ ۠ │ │ │ │

│ │ │ │ │

│ ⠠ │ │ │ 117 │

│ ⠠ │ │ │ 10 │

│ │ │ │ │

│ ۠ │ │ │ │

│ │ │ │ │

│ ⠠ │ │ │ 84 │

│ ⠠ │ │ │ 8 │

│ │ │ │ │

│ 蠠 │ │ │ 140 │

│ ࠠ │ d │ │ 100 │

│ ࠠ │ │ │ 2 │

│ 蠠 │ │ │ 15 │

│ │ 1 │ │ 70 │

│ │ h │ │ 30 │

│ │ k │ │ 0-10 │

│ │ h䠠 │ │ 5-40 │

└─────────────────────────────────────────┴───────────┴────┴────────┘

w() = 0.8*w() = 0.8*0.723 = 0.58 /

wo' = sqrt(px*g*h/q/py) -

wo' = sqrt(736.3/2.163*9.81/5*0.015) = 3.165 /

w' = Fc*wo' = 0.0107*4.476 = 0.479 / < 0.58 / ( )

wo = w()/Fc = 0.58/0.0992 = 5.85 / ( )

px = (px()+px())/2 = (735.6+737)/2 = 736.3 /3

py = (py()+py())/2 = (2.092+2.233)/2 = 2.1625 /3

17-20 624 [2] = 0.4

q - = 5 .

h -

[1]5.3

dp = dp1 + dp2 + dp3 [2] . 17.23

dp -

dp1 - c

dp2 -

dp3 - ,

r - ( 0.5 )

ᠠ -

dp1 = q*py*wo/2 = 5*2.163*sqr(5.42)/2 = 159

dh = (Vx/(1.85*Lc*r))


2/3 = (G/(px*1.85*Lc*r))
2/3

dh = (3.8376/(736.3*1.85*1.419*0.5))**(2/3) = 0.025

dp2 = 1.3*g*r*px*(h+0.5*h+dh)

dp2 = 1.3*9.81*0.5*736.3*(0.03+0.5*0.015+0.025) = 293.5

dp3 = 4/d = 4/(4*b*l/(2*(b+l)))

dp3 = 4*0.016/(4*0.008*0.015/(2*(0.008+0.015))) = 6.1

dp = 159+293.5+6=458.5 ࠠ dp() = dp2+dp3 = 293.5+6 = 299.5

[1]5.4

.

tcp = 94.28 C

tcp = 92.52

ty = 96.04 C

x(tcp) = 0.4867

y~(tcp) = 0.7133

acp = y~*(1-x)/(x*(1-y~) -

acp = 0.7133*(1-0.4867)/(0.4867*(1-0.7133)) = 2.624

(92.52) = ln(1)*xf + ln(2)*(1-xf)

(92.52) = exp(ln(0.43)*0.5523+ln(0.83)*(1-0.5523)) = 0.61 *

Dy = [4.3e-7*T


3/2]/[p*(va
1/3+vb
1/3)]*sqrt(1/Ma+1/Mb) 16.25 [2]

Dy = 0.00000638 /

(P - [])

Dy = 1.013e-8*T


1.75/(P*(va
1/3+vb
1/3)]*sqrt(1/Ma+1/Mb)

Dy = 0.00000640 /

va = 3*14.8+8*3.7+9.9 = 83.9 6.3 [3]

vb = 4*14.8+10*3.7+9.9 = 106.1

Dx' = 1e-6/[2.65*sqrt()(va1/3+vb1/3)]**sqrt(1/Ma+1/Mb) 16.26 [2]

Dx' = 1.01*10


-9 /

Dx = Dx'*(1+b*(t-20)) = 1.01e-9*(1+0.0335*(92.5-20)) = 3.46*10


-9 /

b = 0.2*sqrt()/p


1/3 = 0.2*sqrt(2.39)/(785**(1/3))=0.0335

1 = 60.096 / 2 = 74.123 /

acp* = 2.624*0.61 = 1.6, 3.9 [1] -

,

= 0.43

-

( ).

( ). [2]

Ey = 1 - exp(-noy) noy = Kyf*M()/(w*)

Š -

m -

noy -

E = 1 - exp(-noy) 1/noy = 1/ny + m/l*1/nx

Re = wdp/ = 0.58*1*2.1663/0.0000097=129531

ny = Dy/w*(0.79*Re+110000)*T/273*S/S 19-23 [2]

nx = 38000*S/Vx*Dx*(Pr)


0.62 19-24 [2]

ny = 6.39e-6/0.58*(0.79*129531+11000)*(92.5+273)/273*1.8575/2.5447

ny = 1.22

nx = 38000*1.8575/0.00308*3.46e-9*240**0.62=2.371

nx = 38000*1.8575/0.00734*3.46e-9*240**0.62=0.995

Vx = L/px() = 2.2655/735.6 = 0.00308


3/

Vx = L/p() = 5.4120/737 = 0.00734


3/

Pr' = /px/Dx = 0.00061/736.3/3.46e-9 = 240

l = R/(R+1) = 1.56/2.56 = 0.61

l = (R+F/P)/(R+1) = (1.56+10000/5000)/2.56 = 1.39

yk = yp + Ey*(y~-yp) 6.43 [1]

┌───────┬────────┬───────┬───────┬───────┬───────┬───────┬───────┐

│ x │ m │ l │ noy │ E │ Y~ │ Yp │ Yk │

├───────┼────────┼───────┼───────┼───────┼───────┼───────┼───────┤

│ 0.00 │ 2.5234 │ 1.39 │ 2.642 │ 0.938 │ 00.00 │ 0.00 │ 0.00 │

│ 4.65 │ 2.2360 │ 1.39 │ 2.448 │ 0.918 │ 11.20 │ 4.65 │ 10.63 │

│ 11.55 │ 1.8797 │ 1.39 │ 2.189 │ 0.897 │ 25.10 │ 13.32 │ 23.77 │

│ 21.85 │ 1.4842 │ 1.39 │ 1.890 │ 0.859 │ 42.70 │ 26.95 │ 40.33 │

│ 23.05 │ 1.4425 │ 1.39 │ 1.867 │ 0.845 │ 44.10 │ 28.54 │ 41.68 │

│ 34.55 │ 1.0659 │ 1.39 │ 1.596 │ 0.805 │ 58.45 │ 43.76 │ 55.46 │

│ 38.70 │ 0.9553 │ 1.39 │ 1.518 │ 0.784 │ 62.90 │ 49.25 │ 59.89 │

│ 44.10 │ 0.8486 │ 1.39 │ 1.434 │ 0.765 │ 67.70 │ 56.40 │ 65.01 │

│ 54.55 │ 0.7443 │ 0.61 │ 1.334 │ 0.748 │ 75.80 │ 70.10 │ 74.30 │

│ 63.80 │ 0.6562 │ 0.61 │ 1.272 │ 0.728 │ 82.45 │ 76.35 │ 80.74 │

│ 74.50 │ 0.5417 │ 0.61 │ 1.190 │ 0.708 │ 88.75 │ 82.87 │ 86.97 │

│ 82.75 │ 0.4666 │ 0.61 │ 1.144 │ 0.680 │ 92.95 │ 87.89 │ 91.34 │

│ 94.85 │ 0.3877 │ 0.61 │ 1.097 │ 0.665 │ 98.05 │ 95.26 │ 97.11 │

│100.00 │ 0.3682 │ 0.61 │ 1.071 │ 0.661 │100.00 │100.00 │100.00 │

└───────┴────────┴───────┴───────┴───────┴───────┴───────┴───────┘

N = 14 (

-

). [1] 235

Z = 1

Z = 2 젠 H = (N-1)*H + Z + Z = 14*0.4+1+2 = 8.6

dP = dp*N = 464.5*14 = 6503


[1]5.5 .

- 3 -

, , -

. -

35.

B6

@6.1

-

G = 4.0220 / , 105.6 Ѡ

:

p(w) = 736.8 /


3, [3] 537,549

d(w) = 624.3 / = r(w),

(w) = 0.63 *,

(w) = 0.0182 /,

(w) = 3658 /*,

(w) = 2.348 /


3

la(w) = 0.128 /(*)

-

= 2.755 /. r() = 2179

/, t() = 130 . -

= 935 /


3,

() = 0.212 * la() = 0.686 /(*).

, -

:

1 = 1.21*la*(p*r*g/(()**q))


1/3 = Aq
-1/3 [1] 2.23

:

la()


1.3p(w)
0.5q
0.6

a2 = 780 ────────────────────────────────────── = Bq


0.6

(w)


0.5r(w)
0.6(w)
0.6(w)
0.3(w)
0.3

-

,

1/ = dtcp/q = 1/a1 + (/la) + 1/a2

1 2

q

f(q) = 1/A*q4/3 + [(/la)]*q + 1/B*q0.4 -dtcp = 0 ()

1.

Q(w) = Q(p)+G(p)*C(p)*t(p)+G(w)*C(w)*t(w)-G(f)*C(f)*t(f)+Q()

Q(p) = P(R+1)*r(p) = 1.388889*(1.558+1)*661600=2350518

G(p)*C(p)*t(p) = 1.3889*3091*83.03 = 356455

G(w)*C(w)*t(w) = 1.3889*3658*105.6 = 536511

G(f)*C(f)*t(f) = 2.7778*3007*90.72 = 757770

Q(w) = 1.05(2350518+356455+536511-757770)=2485714

2.

G() = Q/r() = 2485714/2179000 = 1.141 /c

3.

dtcp = 130-105.6 = 24.4 C

4. 2.1 [1] -

= 250 /(). -

Fop = Q/K*dtcp = 2485714/(320*24.4) = 318

2.9 [1]

H = 4 젠 D = 1.2 젠 d = 25 2 젠 F = 340

5. () q

A = 1.21*0.686*(935**2*2179000*9.81/(0.000212*4))**1/3 = 232717

B = 780*0.128**1.3*737**0.5/

(0.0182**0.5*624300**0.6*2.348**0.6*3658**0.3*0.00063**0.3)=1.6855

= 2 , - la = 17.5 /(*)

(

) :

(/la) = 0.002/17.5+1/5800=0.000287 /

() q = 7875 . -

: ( q < 9100 - -

!)

F = Q/q = 2485714/7875=315.65


, -

2.28 [1] :

q = 0.14*r*py


0.5*(g*p*)
0.25

q = 0.14*2179000*sqrt(2.348)*(9.81*0.0182*736.8)**0.25

q = 1583095 /(*)

.

a1 = Aq


-1/3 = 232717*7875**(-1/3) = 11697.09 /(*)

a2 = Bq


0.6 = 1.6855*7875**0.6 = 366.84 /(*)

K = 1/(1/11697.09+1/366.84+0.000287) = 322.74 /(*)

= (340-315)*100/315=8%

:

D = 0.7*sqrt(n*d) = d*0.7*sqrt(n) = 0.7*0.021*sqrt(1083) =0.484

6. .

, 130 .

- .

35 . to =

20 C -

4.71 [3]

1 = 9.74+0.07*dt = 9.74+0.07*(35-20) = 10.8 /()

ꠠ q = a1(t-to) = 10.8*(35-20) = 162 /

, -

, : q = K(t-to) = la/*(t-to)

(la = 0.098 )

= la/q*(t-to) = 0.098/162*(130-20) = 0.067

┌──────────────────────────────────────────┐

│ │

├───────────────────────────┬─────┬────────┤

│𠠠 │ │ │

├───────────────────────────┼─────┼────────┤

│ │ D │ 1200 │

│ ࠠ │ D │ 484 │

│ ᠠ │ d │ 252 │

│ ᠠ │ n │ 1083 │

│ ᠠ │ H │ 4 │

│ ࠠ │ F │ 340 │

└───────────────────────────┴─────┴────────┘


@6.2

-

G(1) = 3.5528 /

. r(1) = 661600 /,

t(1) = 83 C. la(1) = 0.135 /(*), (1) = 733.6 /


3,

= 0.00075 *. t(2) = 20

t(2) = 35 .

t2 = 27.5 C -

2 = 997 /


3, 2 = 4182 /(*), la(2) = 0.616 /(),

(2) = 0.00082 *, Pr = 2*(2)/la(2) = 5.56.

1.

Q = P(R+1)*r(1) = 1.388889*(1.558+1)*661600=2350518

2.

G(2) = Q/(C(2)*dt) = 2350518/(4180*(35-20))=37.49 /

3.

dtcp = ((83-20)-(83-35))/ln((83-20)/(83-35))=55.16 C

4. 2.1 [1] = 450 /(). -

:

Fop = Q/(K*dtcp) = 2350518/(450*55.16) = 95

Re(2) = 15000 (n)

(z) d = 252 .

n/z = 4*G(2)/(pi*d*(2)*Re(2))

n/z = 4*38.55/(3.1416*0.021*0.00082*15000) = 190

5. .  

2.9 [1] n/z -

D = 800 , -

252 , z = 4 n = 404 .

n/z = 404/4 = 101

L = 4 ; F = 127 D = 0.8 .

Re(2) = 4*G(2)*z/(pi*d*(2)*n)

Re(2) = 4*37.49*4/(3.1416*0.021*0.00082*404)=27445

2.12 [1]

, t.

( ).

2 = la(2)/d*0.023*Re


0.8*Pr
0.4

2 = 0.616/0.021*0.023*27445**0.8*5.56**0.4 = 4763 /()

,

, 2.24 [1]

a1 = 3.78*la(1)*(p(1)d*n/((1)*G(1))


1/3

a1 = 3.78*0.135*((733.6**2)*0.025*404/(0.00075*3.5528))**(1/3)=647.18

(/la) = 0.002/17.5+1/1860+1/11600=0.000738 */

= 1/(1/4763+1/647+0.000738) = 401 /(*)

F = 2350518/(401*55.16)=106.3

= (127-106)*100/106=19.8 %

6. dP(2) 2.35[1]

:

w(2) = 4*G(2)*z/(pi*d*n*p(2))

w(2) = 4*37.49*4/(3.1416*0.021**2*404*996) = 1.1 /

2.31 [1] :

l = 0.25/[lg[e/3.7+(6.81/Re(2))


0.9]]

l = 0.25/sqr(lg(0.002/3.7+(6.81/27445)**0.9))=0.0286

( 2.6 [1])

w(2) = 4*G(2)/(pi*d*p(2))

w(2) = 4*37.49/(3.1416*0.25**2*996)=0.767 /

dP(2) = l*L*z/d*p*w(2)/2+[2.5(z-1)+2z]*p*w(2)/2+3*p*w(2)/2

dP(2) = 0.0286*4*4/0.021*996*1.1**2/2+(2.5*3+6)*996*1.1**2/2+

+3*996*0.767**2/2=22144

┌──────────────────────────────────────────┐

│ 𠠠 │

├───────────────────────────┬─────┬────────┤

│𠠠 │ │ │

├───────────────────────────┼─────┼────────┤

│ ࠠ │ D │ 800 │

│ ᠠ │ d │ 252 │

│ ⠠ │ z │ 4 │

│ ᠠ │ n │ 404 │

│ ᠠ │ H │ 4 │

│ ࠠ │ F │ 127 │

└───────────────────────────┴─────┴────────┘

@6.3

-

G(2) = 2.77778 /

, 10 90 , -

:

p(2) = 770 /


3, [3] 537,549

(2) = 1.41 *,

(2) = 0.021 /,

(2) = 3007 /*,

la(2) = 0.142 /(*)

-

= 2.755 /. r() = 2179

/, t() = 130 . -

= 935 /


3,

() = 0.212 * la() = 0.686 /(*).

1.

C(2)cp = ((2)(t2n)+(2)(t2k))/2 = (2356+3658)/2 = 3007 /*,

Q = G*(2)cp(t2k-t2n) = 2.777778*3007*(90.7-10) = 674070

2.

G(1) = Q/r(1) = 674070/2179000 = 0.31 /

3.

dtcp = ((130-10)-(130-90))/ln((130-10)/(130-90)) = 72.82 C

4. 2.1 [1] = 330 /().

Fop = Q/(K*dtcp) = 674070/(330*72.82) = 28

Re(2) = 15000 (n)

(z) d = 252 .

n/z = 4*G(2)/(pi*d*(2)*Re(2))

n/z = 4*2.77778/(3.1416*0.021*0.00141*15000) = 7.96

5. . -

. 252

, 600 . F = 46 , L = 3 . z = 6, n = 196

,

, 2.25 [1]

a1 = 1.41*la(1)*(p(1)L/((1)*G(1))


1/3

a1 = 1.41*0.686*((935**2)*3/(0.000212*0.31))**(1/3)= 3305 /

Re(2) = 4*G(2)*z/(pi*d*(2)*n)

Re(2) = 4*2.77778*6/(3.1416*0.021*0.00141*196) = 3657

. 154[3]

, t.

( ).

Pr = 2*(2)/la(2) = 3007*0.00141/0.142 = 29.9

Pr


0.43 = 4.31

2 = la(2)/d*Nu = 0.142/0.021*43.1 = 291.4 /

(

) :

(/la) = 0.004/17.5+1/5800 = 0.0004 */

= 1/(1/3305+1/291.4+0.0004) = 242 /(*)

F = 674070/(242*72.82) = 38.25

= (46-38.25)*100/38.25 = 20.3 %

6. . -

, = 0.067

( )

7. dP(2) 2.35[1]

:

w(2) = 4*G(2)*z/(pi*d*n*p(2))

w(2) = 4*2.77778*6/(3.1416*0.021**2*196*770) = 0.319 /

2.31 [1] :

l = 0.25/[lg[e/3.7+(6.81/Re(2))


0.9]]

l = 0.25/sqr(lg(0.002/3.7+(6.81/3657)**0.9)) = 0.0436

( 2.6 [1])

w(2) = 4*G(2)/(pi*d*p(2))

w(2) = 4*2.77778/(3.1416*0.1**2*770) = 0.46 /

2.35 [1]

dP(2) = [1]l*L*z/d*p*w(2) + [1][2.5(z-1)+2z]*p*w(2) + [1]3*p*w(2)

2 2 2

dP(2) = 0.0436*3*6/0.021*770*0.319**2/2 + (2.5*5+12)*770*0.319**2/2+

+ 3*770*0.46**2/2 = 1464+960+245 = 2669


┌──────────────────────────────────────────┐

│ ꠠ │

├───────────────────────────┬─────┬────────┤

│𠠠 │ │ │

├───────────────────────────┼─────┼────────┤

│ ࠠ │ D │ 600 │

│ ࠠ │ D │ 100 │

│ ᠠ │ d │ 252 │

│ ⠠ │ z │ 6 │

│ ᠠ │ n │ 196 │

│ ᠠ │ H │ 3 │

│ ࠠ │ F │ 46 │

└───────────────────────────┴─────┴────────┘

@6.4 .

1.38889 / 83 20 Ѡ

: (t = 51.5 C)

p(1) = 761 /


3,

(1) = 1.07 *,

(1) = 0.0202 /,

(1) = 3091 /*,

la(1) = 0.145 /(*)

Pr = (1)*(1)/la(1) = 3091*0.00107/0.145 = 22.81

t(2) = 15 t(2) = 35.

t2 = 25 C

2 = 997 /


3,

2 = 4185 /(*),

la(2) = 0.609 /(),

(2) = 0.00088 *,

Pr = 2*(2)/la(2) = 4185*0.00088/0.609 = 6.05.

1.

Q = G*(2)cp(t2k-t2n) = 1.388889*3091*(83-20) = 270463

2.

G(2) = Q/(C(2)*dt) = 270463/(4185*(35-15)) = 3.23 /

3.

dtcp = ((83-35)-(20-15))/ln((83-35)/(20-15)) = 19 C

4. . , -

,

, , , , -

.  

.

,

. ,

, .

Re(2) = 15000, -

, (n) (z) -

d = 252 .

n/z = 4*G(2)/(pi*d*(2)*Re(2))

n/z = 4*3.23/(3.1416*0.021*0.00088*15000) = 15

2.1 [1] = 300 /(). :

Fop = Q/(K*dtcp) = 270463/(300*19) = 47.5

5. .  

. 252 ,

600 . F = 61 , L = 4.0 . -

196 . 6.

Re(2) = 4*G(2)*z/(pi*d*(2)*n)

Re(2) = 4*3.23*6/(3.1416*0.021*0.00088*196)=6812.5

. 154[3]

, t.

( ).

Pr = 6.05 Pr


0.43 = 2.17

2 = la(2)/d*Nu = 0.609/0.021*51=1479 /

Re(1) = wdp/ = G/s*d/ = 1.38888/0.045*0.025/0.00107=721

2.16 [1] , -

[Pr/Pr()]


0.25 = 1.

a1 = la(1)/d*0.24*Re


0.6*Pr
0.4

a1 = 0.145/0.025*0.24*721**0.6*22.81**0.4=252 /()

2.2 [1] :

(/la) = 0.002/17.5+1/5800+1/1860=0.000824 */

= 1/(1/252+1/1479+0.000824)=183 /(*)

F = 270463/(183*19)=77.8

= (91-78)*100/78=16.7 %

6.

:

w(2) = 4*G(2)*z/(pi*dp(2)*n)

w(2) = 4*3.23*6/(3.1416*0.021**2*997*196)=0.286 /

w(1) = 4*G(1)/(1)/s

w(1) = 4*1.38888/(761*0.045)=0.162 /

2.31 [1] :

l = 0.25/[lg[e/3.7+(6.81/Re(2))


0.9]]

l = 0.25/sqr(lg(0.002/3.7+(6.81/6813)**0.9))=0.0371

( 2.6 [1])

w(2) = 4*G(2)/(pi*d*p(2))

w(2) = 4*3.23/(3.1416*0.1**2*997)=0.412 /

dP(2) = l*L*z/d*p*w(2)/2+[2.5(z-1)+2z]*p*w(2)/2+3*p*w(2)/2

dP(2) = 0.0413*6*6/0.021*997*0.286**2/2+(2.5*5+12)*997*0.286**2/2+

+3*997*0.412**2/2=4140

┌──────────────────────────────────────────┐

│ ꠠ │

├───────────────────────────┬─────┬────────┤

│𠠠 │ │ │

├───────────────────────────┼─────┼────────┤

│ ࠠ │ D │ 600 │

│ ࠠ │ D │ 100 │

│ ᠠ │ d │ 252 │

│ ⠠ │ z │ 6 │

│ ᠠ │ n │ 196 │

│ │ H │ 6 │

│ ࠠ │ F │ 91 │

└───────────────────────────┴─────┴────────┘

@6.5 .

1.38889 / 106 20 Ѡ

: (t = 63 C)

p(1) = 774 /


3,

(1) = 1.45 *,

(1) = 0.0212 /,

(1) = 2933 /*,

la(1) = 0.135 /(*)

Pr(1) = (1)*(1)/la(1) = 2933*0.0024/0.135 = 52.14

t(2) = 15 t(2) = 35.

t2 = 25 C

2 = 997 /


3,

2 = 4185 /(*),

la(2) = 0.609 /(),

(2) = 0.00088 *,

Pr = 2*(2)/la(2) = 4185*0.00088/0.609 = 6.05.

1.

Q = G*(2)cp(t2k-t2n) = 1.388889*2933*(106-20) = 350330

2.

G(2) = Q/(C(2)*dt) = 350330/(4185*(35-15)) = 4.186 /

3.

dtcp = ((106-35)-(20-15))/ln((106-35)/(20-15)) = 24.88 C

4. .

Re(1) = 15000, -

, (n) (z) -

d = 252 .

n/z = 4*G(1)/(pi*d*(1)*Re(1))

n/z = 4*4.186/(3.1416*0.021*0.00088*15000)=19

2.1 [1] = 300 /(). :

Fop = Q/(K*dtcp) = 350330/(300*24.9) = 47

5. .  

. 252 ,

600 . F = 61 , L = 4.0 . -

196 . 6.

Re(2) = 4*G(2)*z/(pi*d*(2)*n)

Re(2) = 4*4.186*6/(3.1416*0.021*0.00088*196)=8829

. 154[3]

, t.

( ).

Pr = 6.05 Pr


0.43 = 2.17

2 = la(2)/d*Nu = 0.609/0.021*65.1=1888 /

Re(1) = wdp/ = G/s*d/ = 1.38888/0.045*0.025/0.00145=532

2.16 [1] , -

[Pr/Pr()]


0.25 = 1.

a1 = la(1)/d*0.24*Re


0.6*Pr
0.4

a1 = 0.135/0.025*0.24*532**0.6*22.81**0.4=196 /()

2.2 [1] :

(/la) = 0.002/17.5+1/5800+1/1860=0.000824 */

= 1/(1/196+1/1888+0.000824)=155 /(*)

F = 270463/(155*24.9)=70

= (91-70)*100/70=30 %

6.

:

w(2) = 4*G(2)*z/(pi*dp(2)*n)

w(2) = 4*4.186*6/(3.1416*0.021**2*997*196)=0.371 /

w(1) = 4*G(1)/(1)/s

w(1) = 4*1.38888/(774*0.045)=0.160 /

2.31 [1] :

l(2) = 0.25/[lg[e/3.7+(6.81/Re(2))


0.9]]

l(2) = 0.25/sqr(lg(0.002/3.7+(6.81/8829)**0.9))=0.035

( 2.6 [1])

w(2) = 4*G(2)/(pi*d*p(2))

w(2) = 4*4.186/(3.1416*0.1**2*997)=0.535 /

dP(2) = l*L*z/d*p*w(2)/2+[2.5(z-1)+2z]*p*w(2)/2+3*p*w(2)/2

dP(2) = 0.035*6*6/0.021*997*0.371**2/2+(2.5*5+12)*997*0.371**2/2+

+3*997*0.535**2/2=6226

┌──────────────────────────────────────────┐

│ ꠠ │

├───────────────────────────┬─────┬────────┤

│𠠠 │ │ │

├───────────────────────────┼─────┼────────┤

│ ࠠ │ D │ 600 │

│ ࠠ │ D │ 100 │

│ ᠠ │ d │ 252 │

│ ⠠ │ z │ 6 │

│ ᠠ │ n │ 196 │

│ ᠠ │ H │ 6 │

│ ࠠ │ F │ 91 │

└───────────────────────────┴─────┴────────┘


@6.6

, -

108 . - . -

35 .

to = 20 C

-

4.71 [3]

1 = 9.74+0.07*dt = 9.74+0.07*(35-20) = 10.8 /()

ꠠ q = a1(t-to) = 10.8*(35-20) = 162 /

, -

, : q = K(t-to) = la/*(t-to)

(la = 0.098 )

= la/q*(t-to) = 0.098/162*(108-20) = 0.054

, -

.


B7 .

@7.1

-

I -

-

-

-

W -

-

-

-

-

s -

- [/]

┌──────────────┬─────┬─────────┬─────────┬───────────┐

│ 蠠 │ Ұ │ [] │ [] │ 10


-6 1/K│

├──────────────┼─────┼─────────┼─────────┼───────────┤

│ 031810Ҡ │ 110 │ 200000 │ 124.2 │ 16.6 │

│ 35̠ │ 100 │ 200000 │ 207.0 │ 13.1 │

│ 3 │ 100 │ 199000 │ 134.0 │ 11.9 │

└──────────────┴─────┴─────────┴─────────┴───────────┘

, , -

10 50 % fi = 0.9.

@7.2 .

,

, :

( )

s => p*D/(2**fi-p)+c

p = p(x)*g*h = 820*10*8.6=70520 - .

= * = 0.1 /*10 = 1

s => 70520*1800/(2*124200000*0.9-70520)+1=1.568

. [4]

= 10

@7.3 .

:

s => p*D/(2**fi-0.5*p)+c

s => 70520*1800/(2*124200000*0.9-0.5*70520)+1=1.568

, -

- .

= 10

= 10

, , -

1930 .

= *3.14*D*h/4 = 7800*1.93**2*3.1416*0.01/4 = 228 .

3 20

┌──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┐

│ ࠠ │

├────────┬────────┬────────┬────────┬────────┬────────┬────────┤

│ D []│ D []│ D []│ h []│ s []│ d []│ z []│

├────────┼────────┼────────┼────────┼────────┼────────┼────────┤

│ 1930 │ 1890 │ 1848 │ 40 │ 10 │ 23 │ 64 │

└────────┴────────┴────────┴────────┴────────┴────────┴────────┘

┌──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┐

│堠 s = 10 젠 │

├────────┬─────────────┬────────────┬───────────┬────────┬─────────┤

│ D [] │ │ 젠 │ │ h │ h⠠ │

│ │ │ V*0.001 3 │ │ 젠 │ 젠 │

├────────┼─────────────┼────────────┼───────────┼────────┼─────────┤

│ 1800 │ 3.74 │ 866 │ 2196 │ 40 │ 450 │

└────────┴─────────────┴────────────┴───────────┴────────┴─────────┘

h -

h -

@7.4 , .

<= 2.5

t < 300 C .

. -

-

:

m = 2.5

q = 10

[q] = 40

[1]7.4.0 - .

1. : 483-1810

- 2.7778 /

- 794 /


3

- 1.5 - 3 /

D = (4*G/(3.1416*p(x)*w)


0.5

Dmin = sqrt(4*2.77778/(3.1416*794*3)) = 0.0387 38.7

Dmax = sqrt(4*2.77778/(3.1416*794*1.5)) = 0.0548 54.8

D = 42

s => *D/(2**fi-0.5*)+c

= p(x)*g*h+(/)+w/2 = 794*10*5+2700+794*2.4747**2/2=44831

w = 4*G/(3.1416*p(x)*d) = 4*2.7778/(3.1416*794*0.042**2)=2.4747 /

s => 44831*42/(2*124200000*0.9-44831)+1 = 1

2. :

d

Dy = 50 젠 ├───┤ │<──D─ -

D = 140 젠 ─┬─ ┌────╥───╥──────╥────── -

D = 110 젠 h │ │////║ │ ║//////║ -

D = 59 젠 │ │////║ │ ║//////║

z = 4 ─┼─ └────╨───╨──///║______ .

h = 10 젠 ho─┴─ │──────│──── ───────── 1255-67

ho = 3 젠 │ │<──────D──────

d = 14 젠 │<─────────────D────── ()

50-2.5

3. . D = 40

,

,

.

[1]7.4.1 -

1. . 483-1810

- 2.7778 /

- 738 /


3

- 1.5 - 3 /

D = (4*G/(3.1416*p(x)*w)


0.5

Dmin = sqrt(4*2.77778/(3.1416*738*3.0))=0.04

Dmax = sqrt(4*2.77778/(3.1416*738*1.5))=0.0566

2. . 50-2.5

3. . D = 40

[1]7.4.2 -

1. . 1084-1810

- P(R+1)*M(w)/M(p) = 1.3889*2.558*73.28/60.67 = 4.291 /

- 737 /


3

- 0.5 - 1 /

D = (4*G/(3.1416*p(x)*w)


0.5

Dmin = sqrt(4*4.291/(3.1416*737*1.0)) = 0.086

Dmax = sqrt(4*4.291/(3.1416*737*0.5)) = 0.122

2. . 100-2.5

3. . D = 100


[1]7.4.3 -

1. . 383-1810

- 1.3889 /

- 737 /


3

- 1.5 - 3 /

D = (4*G/(3.1416*p(x)*w)


0.5

Dmin = sqrt(4*1.38889/(3.1416*737*3)) = 0.0283

Dmax = sqrt(4*1.38889/(3.1416*737*1.5))= 0.04

2. . 40-2.5

3. . D = 32

[1]7.4.4 -

1. . 27310-1810

- 3.55278 /

- 2.07 /


3

- 20 - 40 /

D = (4*G/(3.1416*p(x)*w)


0.5

Dmin = sqrt(4*3.55278/(3.1416*2.07*40))=0.234

Dmax = sqrt(4*3.55278/(3.1416*2.07*20))=0.331

3. . D = 250

[1]7.4.5 -

1. . 325X10-1810

- 4.291 /

- 2.348 /


3

- 20 - 40 /

D = (4*G/(3.1416*p(x)*w)


0.5

Dmin = sqrt(4*4.291/(3.1416*2.35*40))=0.241

Dmax = sqrt(4*4.291/(3.1416*2.35*20))=0.341

3. . D = 300

[1]7.4.6 -

1. . 804-1810

- P*R = 1.388889*1.558 = 2.164 /

- 733.6 /


3

- 0.5-1 /

D = (4*G/(3.1416*p(x)*w)


0.5

Dmin = sqrt(4*2.164/(3.1416*733.6*1.0))=0.061

Dmax = sqrt(4*2.164/(3.1416*733.6*0.5))=0.087

3. . D = 70


[1]7.4.7 -

1. . 804-1810

- 1.38889 /

- 733.6 /


3

- 0.5-1 /

D = (4*G/(3.1416*p(x)*w)


0.5

Dmin = sqrt(4*1.38889/(3.1416*733.6*1.0))=0.061

Dmax = sqrt(4*1.38889/(3.1416*733.6*0.5))=0.087

3. . D = 70

[1]7.4.6 -

1. . 383-1810

- 1.38889 /

- 761 /


3

- 1.5 - 3 /

D = (4*G/(3.1416*p(x)*w)


0.5

Dmin = sqrt(4*1.38889/(3.1416*761*3.0))=0.028

Dmax = sqrt(4*1.38889/(3.1416*761*1.5))=0.039

3. . D = 32

[1]7.4.8 -

1. . 383-1810

- 1.38889 /

- 774 /


3

- 1.5 - 3 /

D = (4*G/(3.1416*p(x)*w)


0.5

Dmin = sqrt(4*1.38889/(3.1416*774*3.0))=0.028

Dmax = sqrt(4*1.38889/(3.1416*774*1.5))=0.039

3. . D = 32

[1]7.4.8 -

1. . 27310-3

- 1.41 /

- 1.494 /


3

- 15 - 25 /

D = (4*G/(3.1416*p(x)*w)


0.5

Dmin = sqrt(4*1.41/(3.1416*1.494*25))=0.219

Dmax = sqrt(4*1.41/(3.1416*1.494*15))=0.283

3. . D = 250

[1]7.4.9 -

1. . 1334-3

- 0.31 /

- 1.494 /


3

- 15 - 25 /

D = (4*G/(3.1416*p(x)*w)


0.5

Dmin = sqrt(4*0.31/(3.1416*1.494*25))=0.103

Dmax = sqrt(4*0.31/(3.1416*1.494*15))=0.133

3. . D = 150

[1]7.4.10 -

1. . 572.5-3

- 1.41 /

- 997 /


3

- 0.5 - 1 /

D = (4*G/(3.1416*p(x)*w)


0.5

Dmin = sqrt(4*1.41/(3.1416*997*1.0))=0.043

Dmax = sqrt(4*1.41/(3.1416*997*0.5))=0.060

3. . D = 50

[1]7.4.11 -

1. . 252-3

- 0.31 /

- 997 /


3

- 0.5 - 1 /

D = (4*G/(3.1416*p(x)*w)


0.5

Dmin = sqrt(4*0.31/(3.1416*997*1.0))=0.020

Dmax = sqrt(4*0.31/(3.1416*997*0.5))=0.028

3. . D = 20

[1]7.4.12 - -

1. . 1594.5-3

- 37.5 /

- 997 /


3

- 1.5 - 3 /

D = (4*G/(3.1416*p(x)*w)


0.5

Dmin = sqrt(4*37.5/(3.1416*997*3.0))=0.126

Dmax = sqrt(4*37.5/(3.1416*997*1.5))=0.179

3. . D = 150


[1]7.4.13 - -

1. . 573.5-3

- 4.2 /

- 997 /


3

- 1.5 - 3 /

D = (4*G/(3.1416*p(x)*w)


0.5

Dmin = sqrt(4*4.2/(3.1416*997*3.0))=0.042

Dmax = sqrt(4*4.2/(3.1416*997*1.5))=0.060

3. . D = 50

[1]7.4.14 -

1. . 483-1810

- 1.38889 /

- 786 802 /


3

- 0.8 - 2 /

D = (4*G/(3.1416*p(x)*w)


0.5

Dmin = sqrt(4*1.38889/(3.1416*786*2.0))=0.033

Dmax = sqrt(4*1.38889/(3.1416*786*0.8))=0.053

Dmin = sqrt(4*1.38889/(3.1416*802*2.0))=0.033

Dmax = sqrt(4*1.38889/(3.1416*802*0.8))=0.053

3. . D = 40

[1]7.4.15 -

1. . 483-1810

- 1.38889 /

- 786 802 /


3

- 1 - 3 /

D = (4*G/(3.1416*p(x)*w)


0.5

Dmin = sqrt(4*1.38889/(3.1416*786*3.0))=0.027

Dmax = sqrt(4*1.38889/(3.1416*786*1.0))=0.047

Dmin = sqrt(4*1.38889/(3.1416*802*3.0))=0.027

Dmax = sqrt(4*1.38889/(3.1416*802*1.0))=0.047

3. . D = 40


@7.5 .

[1]7.5.1 1 -

--

2.77778 /, 794 /


3

, .

6 . - 5 .

27 . (). -

90.

, 90.

1. 42 .

w = 4*G/(3.1416*p(x)*d = 4*2.77778/(3.1416*794*0.042**2)=2.525 /

2.

Re = 4*G/(pi*d*) = 4*2.77778/(3.1416*0.042*0.00141) = 59723

= 0.0002 . :

e = /d = 0.0002/0.042 = 0.00476

1/e = 210 560/e = 117600 10/e = 2100 2100 < Re < 117600

la

1.6 [1]

la = 0.11(e+68/Re)


0.25 = 0.11*(0.0002+68/59723)**0.25 = 0.021

) .(1) = 0.5

) .(2) = 0.83 D = 0.042

) .(3) = 0.9

) .(1) = 0.9 ) .(2) = 4.9

) dP = 2700 ࠠ ) .(2) = 1

dP = p*w*(la*L/d+.)/2 =

. = 0.5+0.83+5*0.9+2*4.9+1=16.63

dP = 794*2.525**2*(0.021*32/0.042+16.63)/2+2700=85290

Р = p*g*h + dP = 794*9.81*6+85290=132025

H = P/pg = 132025/1000/9.81=13.46 .

Q = G/p = 2.77778/794=0.0035 3/

1 1.1 [1]

┌──────┬──────┬──────────┬──────┬───────────┬───────────────────┐

│ │Q


3/│ │ n 1/c│ │ │

│ │


│ │ │ ├────────┬─────┬────┤

│ │


│ │ │ │  │N │ │

├──────┼──────┼──────────┼──────┼───────────┼────────┼─────┼────┤

│20/18│0.0055│ 13.8 │ 48.3 │ 0.6 │2-31-2│ 3 │0.83│

└──────┴──────┴──────────┴──────┴───────────┴────────┴─────┴────┘

[1]7.5.2 2 -

1.388889 /, 774 /


3 -

, .

6 . - 2 .

10 . (). ,

90.

1. 32 .


w = 4*G/(3.1416*p(x)*d = 4*1.388889/(3.1416*774*0.032**2)=2.231 /

2.

Re = 4*G/(pi*d*) = 4*1.388889/(3.1416*0.032*0.00145) = 38112

= 0.0002 . :

e = /d = 0.0002/0.042 = 0.00476

1/e = 210 560/e = 117600 10/e = 2100 2100 < Re < 117600

la

1.6 [1]

la = 0.11(e+68/Re)


0.25 = 0.11*(0.0002+68/38112)**0.25 = 0.0232

) .(1) = 0.5

) .(1) = 0.9

) . dP(/) = 5000

) .(2) = 4.9

) .(2) = 1

. = 0.5+4*0.9+4.9+1=10

dP = p*w*(la*L/d+.)/2+dP(/)

dP = 774*2.231**2*(0.0232*12/0.032+10)/2+5000 = 41020

Р = p*g*h + dP = 774*9.81*6+41020 = 86578

H = P/pg = 86578/1000/9.81 = 8.83 .

Q = G/p = 1.388889/774


= 0.0018
3/

1 1.1 [1]

┌──────┬──────┬──────────┬──────┬───────────┬───────────────────┐

│ │Q


3/│ │ n 1/c│ │ │

│ │


│ │ │ ├────────┬─────┬────┤

│ │


│ │ │ │  │N │ │

├──────┼──────┼──────────┼──────┼───────────┼────────┼─────┼────┤

│8/18 │0.0024│ 11.3 │ 48.3 │ 0.4 │2-31-2│ 3 │ ── │

└──────┴──────┴──────────┴──────┴───────────┴────────┴─────┴────┘

@7.6 .

╓────────────────────╖ ─┬─ -

║ ║ │ -

║ ║ │ 堠 .

─>║<─s ║ │ Q = 堠 ,

║ ║ │ -

║ ║ │ -

─> ║<─l ║ │ , -

║ ║ h . Qin

║ ║ │ - .

║<─────── D ───────>║ │ M - . q()

║ ║ │ - -

_║ ║_ │ =10 . k1=0.7 k2=2.

/ ║ ║ │ q()=2

/ ║ ║ │ ()=240 ,()=146

════╩═══──────────────═══╩════ ─┴─ , ()=380 , =2

D1=1890 , D2 = 1750 ,

<──── D2 ────> h = 2 , l = 0.07 .

<──────────── D1 ────────────> s = 10 .

F = Q*g = p(x)*g*h + g*(m()+m()+m()+m())

F = 70520+10*(297+14*176+7800*3.1416*(1.82**2-1.8**2)*7.6/4+228)

Qmax = 13400 Fmax = 134000

Qmin = 6341 㠠 Fmin = 63410 H

= [1]F*D + 4* <= ()

3.1416*Ds

= (134000*1.82+4*50960)/(3.1416*1.82**2*0.01)=4305000 < 146000000

= 0.5*k1*k2*q()*h*D = 0.5*0.7*2*10000*2**2*1.82=50960 *

(max) = [1] Fmax + [1]10**D1 = 619870 < 2*q() = 4

0.785*(D1-D2) (D1


4-D2
4)

(min) = [1] Fmin _ [1]10**D1 = -126345

0.785*(D1-D2) (D1


4-D2
4)

(min) < 0 - , .

M24:

= 0.785*(D1-D2)*│(min)│

= 0.785*126345*(1.89**2-1.75**2) = 50483

z = 1.2*/(k*F*()*n) = 1.2*50483/(1*0.000317*240000000*1)=0.796

-

, , , -

90 .

@7.7

@

2 - 8 .

:

V(max) = G*t(max)/p t(max) = V(max)*p/G

V(min) = G*t(min)/p t(min) = V(min)*p/G

G - 䠠

t - , -

- 20 Ѡ ,


= 800 /
3

1. 1 - .

V(max) = 10000*8/800 = 100


3

V(min) = 10000*2/800 = 25


3

2. 2 3 -

V(max) = 5000*8/800 = 50.0


3

V(min) = 5000*2/800 = 12.5


3

[4]

,

( ). -

1810.

┌─────────┬─────────────────────┬──────────┬───────┬───────┬───────┐

│ │ [


3] │││ │ │

│ ├───────────┬─────────┤ │ │ │ │

│ ││ │[] │[] │[] │ [] │

├─────────┼───────────┼─────────┼──────────┼───────┼───────┼───────┤

│ 1 │ 80.00 │ 74.37 │ 3000 │ 5 │ 11555 │ 5.95 │

│ 2 │ 40.00 │ 39.67 │ 2600 │ 5 │ 8445 │ 6.35 │

│ 3 │ 40.00 │ 39.67 │ 2600 │ 5 │ 8445 │ 6.35 │

└─────────┴───────────┴─────────┴──────────┴───────┴───────┴───────┘

1. 1 - .

t = 800*74.37/10000 = 5.95

2. 2 3 -

t = 800*39.67/5000 = 6.35

-

.

B8

-

--

10 /


1800 -

8.6 . -

.

-

,

(),

- , -

. :

-

. -

.

, -

,

. -

, ,

.

, -

: ,

35 , -

90-98 -

. ,

, , -

- .


1. :

/ .., .: -

, 1991. - 496 .

2. .., .., .., -

, .: , 1968. - 848 .

3. .., .., ..,

, .: , 1987. - 576 .

4. .., ..,

, .-. , 1963. - 470 .

5. , , .

2.

3.

4.

q > 9100

- . ..

 

 

 

! , , , .
. , :