. , , ,

,,,

, ,

31

.

. - , -

-

. ,-

,,, -

, .,

. -

, -

.

, - ,

. -

-

., , -

, 3 - 5

, , -

Stipa , Stipa capillata, "-

".

- -

.

,

-

.

-

- ,

.. -

, -

- -

, 40-60

, -

,

.

, .

,,:

1. -

,

.

2.

.

3. -

-

, .

:

䠠 頠 . .

,

, .

:

ࠠ -

֠ ,

.

(2.02.1994), ...-

(16.02.1995), -

", ," . (26.09.1995).

1.

.

1.1 -

.

-

.

, ..

(1964) .. (1984).   ,

(, 1983;, 1985, 1986)

" " -

,. -

,

-

, -

.

-

,, -

-

, ,

-

.

.. (1964)

,..(1969, 1984, 1993 .);.. 1952, 1969

,1990).   , -

, ,

-

, ,-

, ,-

, ,

.

-

: , -

, . -

, -

, -

.

.

, -

- (,-

,1980;,,1983; ,1984; ,1986;

, ,1992; ,,1994; ,,

1994;).

-

-

, ,, -

.

- -

.

-

( , --,1952; ,1986;

,,1988;,,1988;). -

-

..(,1979,1983;-

,,1981,1984; .1983;,1990;)

.. (,1977,1988

;,1972;,,1977;,1978;

1982,1992; .1985; , ,1986;,

1986;,,1992).

-

(Scholz 1975,Hodgkinson. 1991,Ger-

rish. 1991, Dabaan. et al.1991, Bellon. 1991, Balent ., Smith.

1991, Yonghong. 1991, Moles. 1992).

1.2. .

-

, -

.

, -

,..

, -

, -

.

-

(,1987),

(Bazzaz 1968,1975;Nicholson,onk 1974; Hayashi 1977;

Keever 1983;Leps 1987).

(Succession in Abandoned

fields,1990). - ( Leps,1990; Prach,

1990;Osbornova,1990;Osbornova,Prach,1990) -

- -

.

, ,

-

-

.  

, -

.

,-

,..-

-

.

(Symonides,1986).

,

, ,

, -

, ( ,1969;1984;1988;

,1965; .1977 ; , 1979; , 1984;

, . 1986;" ..."

1987, , , 1988; , , 1986; "

...1994).

,

, -

, -

. -

, ..-

, ( -

),

, ,

.

1.3. .

- ,

(,

1985).

-

- ,

-

- ,

. , -

, ,

(,

, , ..)

- -

. (-

,1985;,1995),

-

. .

.-

,

, -

- -

, ..

.

.  

(Cnnel,Slatyer,1977).

1. -

., -

(, ,

,,,,).

2. -

, -

. -

,

(

, , -

).

3. .   -

(

), -

S (Grime,

1979). ,

, ,.

. -

, -

,

( ..,1983)

4. -

-

- -

. -

, -

-

, .

(,

,

, ,

⠠ )

. . .. (1989).

,

-

, (,

, )

-

, -

( ), -

( ,-

"" ) ,

-

-

, -

,

.

, "-

" -

.

, , ,

-

(Picett et al.1987).

.-

(,1964;-

,1965; ...,1987).

(1989) :

1. (R-)

-

.

, (-

) , , -.-

- ;

(, )

.

2. . -

.

- . -

.

.

3. , , -

, .

-

, . -

-

, -

,

- .

,,()

-

,

2-3

-

, .

,

-

,

. -

,, , -

-

-

,.. -

,

. -

,

-

.

.(gler,1954), -

-

. , .,

, -

. -

.

2. .

,

. -

.. ..

(1941) ,

-

. -

-

.. (1966 ), .. .

(" - ...",1964;)..

...(1975).;.. (1980);.. (1992).

-

(1980) -- -

- -

- - .

.. (1994) -

-

.

2.1. .

-

.

, , ,

, -

.

-

,

(,1954).

. -

289-425 .

425 .

289 . (,,1975). -

ՠ 30

(1959-1989 ..) 315,0 .

-

, .

-

( 10 C)

. -

. -

90-110 130

. 10 120-

135 , (.)

(.) 1800-2000, -

(.-) (.)-2200-2300

.

,

, -

-

, .

, ,

.

-

155-170 . - 30-40

., . -

45-46 ., -

18 .

1 2 -

. , -

(1990

1992,1993,1994 ..) (1991). -

-

.

1.

() -

( )

..

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 .

17,1 19,9 38,6 12,4 12,3 16,0

8,5 6,5 14,4 10,0 10,3 20,0

򠠠 36,1 10,5 3,9 25,2 13,8 14,0

100,3 1,8 6,9 53,9 23,1 20,0

頠 52,5 12,0 30,0 4,3 55,2 30,0

43,0 28,9 48,1 83,2 43,1 44,0

62,2 46,2 85,6 65,9 55,1 50,0

򠠠 123,4 29,7 40,5 41,3 66,6 40,0

20,8 15,8 36,3 52,4 3,8 26,0

28,4 10,5 45,4 45,8 4,7 29,0

25,0 13,2 28,9 38,1 25,7 15,0

16,9 28,4 10,0 18,0 32,9 20,0

- 䠠

䠠 535,1 223,4 388,6 464,5 346,6 324

- 䠠

. 281,1 116,8 204,2 194,7 220 164

2.

-

.

/ /

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 -

t

-14,6 -12,4 -11,3 -9,8 -13,6 -12,3

-10,6 -14,7 -11,8 -14,6 -19,1 -14,1

򠠠 -2,6 -7,7 -7,0 -8,7 -9,9 -7,1

3,6 7,7 4,0 0,9 4,7 4,1

頠 11,2 14,4 10,1 11,0 11,2 11,5

17,4 19,4 14,8 16,4 16,3 16,9

17,4 18,9 15,7 18,1 15,0 17,0

򠠠 14,7 14,8 13,6 16,4 14,7 14,8

9,4 11,0 11,0 6,0 11,8 9,8

1,3 7,3 1,4 2,3 5,1 3,4

-5,6 -5,1 -5,1 -13,6 -5,9 -7,0

-9,2 -13,7 -12,3 -12,9 -9,9 -11,6

- +2,7 +4,5 +1,9 +0,9 +1,7 +2,1

t

▓▓- .

-

-

450 . -

160-170 . -

. , -

, . -

- 0,3-0,6 . 1 -

. 550-600 ., -

300-360 ...

, 50-60 .

, -

33,6%, -

-23,4 %. -

- , - -

, (,1948).

.. (1994) , --

- -

,

,,

.

.

-

, .

-

- . -

- , --

.

( ) -

-

. ࠠ

1,1-1,25 /, 3500-4500 /,-

7-9%, -300-500 /,

.

,

- -

. , -

-

,

5,6-6,5%, -2,5-3,1 , -

17,2-20,0 . 100 ., 6,0-6,4.-

:

-4,4- 5,8, -1,4-2,6 , 9,5-

-11,3 . 100 ..

31,2 32,0 ͠

5,2.

2.3

.. -

. -

,-

- (Braun-

Blanqut, 1964;Wsthoff, Maarel,1978;, 1985,1989;,

1995). .

(, 1986), ( .,

1988;Mirkin t al.,1989 ), (

.,1985), .

..,

. -

.

-

( .,1986)

2.3.1.

-

.. (1980) .

-

1980 .(,1980).

-

3 ,

- ( Stipa Zalesskii+Lecanthemum vulgare)

( Stipa

S.zalesskii+S.lessingiana). -

- -

,

-

.

-

(Schubert et al.,1981).

-

,

.

-

- , -

-

( ).

-

- 1986

( 1986,1987,1988,1989 ,,,1990 ,,1991).-

:

Festuco-Brometea Br.-Bl.et R.Tx..

Klika et Hadac 1944 (Mucina,1993), -

-

.

Festucetalia valesia-

cae Br.Bl.et Tx. 1943 -

-

-

Helicto-

tricho-Stipetalia Tomn 1969(Toman,1969).

- Festucion valesiacae Klika,1931,

. -

. Sti-

pa pennata,St.pulcherrima,St.dasyphylla,St.tirsa, Helicto-

trichon schellianum,Koeleria delavignei,Bromopsis inermis,Fes-

tuca pratensis,Phleum phleoides,Poa ngustifolia,Poa pratensis,

Calmagrostis epigeios,C.arundinacea,Elytrigia repens. -

-

(Filipendula vulgaris,Galium

tinctorium,Sanguisorba offiinalis,Seseli libanotis,Anemone sy-

lvestris .). -

, , -

. Festucion valesiacae -

-

Calamgrostis epigeios,Dactylis glomerata, Helictotrichon schel-

lianum ., - .

-

.

,

. , -

, Festucion

valesiacae Chmaecythisus

ruthenicus,Rosa cinnamomea,R.glabrifolia,Cerasus fruticosa .

-

. -

6 .

Helictotricho-Stipetalia --

- -

.-

Festu-

cetalia,

. 3 .

Helictotricho-Stipion Toman 1969

-

. .

Stipa pennata,Stipa zalesskii,Stipa

tirsa Helictotrichon desertorum, Koeleria cris-

tata,Poa angustifolia,Bromopsis inermis, Poa stepposa, Festuca

valesiaca,F.pseudovina,F.rupicola,Stipa capillata,S.lessingiana

. -

.-

Helictotricho-Stipion

Festucion valesiacae -

.

Galio-Onosmion simplicissimae Saitov 1989.

. -

,

, ,, .

- (Artemisia frigida,Centaurea sibirica, Aster al-

pinus,Scorzonera austriaca .). -

, -

.

Orostachion spinosae Saitov

1989. -

, Stipa

zaleeskii,St.capillata,St.lessingiana. -

(Sedum hybridum,Tanacetum

millefolium,Onosma simplicissima,Dianthus acicularis)

Festuca pseudovina Koeleria sclerophylla.

, ,

. -

,

-

.

,-

.

-

.

(,

.), -

. -

-

(-),

ࠠ (-)

(- ).

(-

). -

( -

),

. -

-

.

-

-

. -

. -

.

(Dabaan et al.,1991).

2.3.2.

(,,1972;, -

,1973;,1975; .,1980;,1985;

.1986) -

.

Polygonion Krasheninikovii,Kashapov,(1985)

Polygonum Krasheninikovii,Achllea

vulgaris,Trifolium medium,

Glietalia veri Mirk.et Num.1986(..oa angustifolia,

Filipendula vulgaris,Potentilla argentea, Galium verum).

Molinio-Arrhenatheretea (Festua pra-

tensis, Achillea millefolium,Leucanthemum vulgare,Vicia cracca,

Lathyrus pratensis,Phleum pratense,Trifolium pratense,Elytrigia

repens,Bromopsis inermis, Trifolio-Geranietea Sanguinei

( Orignetalia), Betonia officinalis, Orignum vulgare,

Hypericum perforatum.

..

: 1)Polgono Krascheninnikovii-Aegopodietum pdagra-

riae,

2)Aconito excelsi-Aegopodietum pdagrariae,

3)Centaureo stenolepis-Polygonetum Krascheninniko-

vii,

4)Trifolio repentis-Alhimillietum vulgaris

5)Poligono Krascheninnikovii-Alhimillietum vulga-

ris,

- -

, ,-

...

2.3.3.

. : (Betula

pendulla), (B.pubescens), (Populua fremula)

(Pinus slvestris),

(Larix sibirica), (Alnus glutinosa), (A.

incana), (Salix alba), (Populus nigra).

,

.

,

-

(B.pendula) (P.tremula) ,

- Lathyro-

Quercion Solometch t al.1989 Quercetalia pubesntis

Br.-Bl.(1931) Quero-Fagetea Br.-Bl.et Vlieger in Vlieger

1937. Calamag-

roetio-Laricetum Schubert et al. 1979 ex. Mirkin et Solomtch

1990.

堠 ⠠ 򠠠 Calamagrostis

arundinacea,Brachypodium pinnatum,Rubus saxatilis,Seseli

libanotis .(,-,1941; -

1954;Schubert et al,1979; .,1988;1994).

-

,

(lnus incana) (Padus avium). -

lnetum incanae Ludi 1921 Humulo-Padetum Solometch in

haziakhmetov et al.1989 Alno-Padion Knapp 1942

Fagetalia Paul.1928 Quereo-Fagetea.

-

- .

, . -

Urtica dioica,Humulus lupulus,

Filipendula ulmaria, Aegopodium podagraria, Geum urbanum,Milium

effusum .

,

- Salix

alba,Populus nigra,Salix viminalis,Salix triandra.

Salici-Populetum Meijer-Drees 1936 Salicet

triandro-viminalis Tx.1931 Lohm.1952 Salicetea purpureae

Moor 1958.

-

Alnetea glutinosae Br.-Bl.et Tx.1943.

Betula

pubescens Alnus glutinosa Carici

cespitosae-Betuletum pubescentis Solometch et Grigorjev 1992

Carici elongatae-Alnetum glutinosae Koch 1926 Alnion

glutinosae Muller et Gors 1958 Alnetalia glutinosae

Tx. 1937. -Carex

cespitosa,C.juncella .

, . -

,,-

- .

2.3.4. .

-

. -

.. .(1985) -

Seclietetea Chenopodietea Br.-

-Bl.1951.em Lohm.,J.et R.Tx.ex Matuszkiewiz.1962.

, Convolvulus arvensis,Centaurea

cyanus,Avena fatua,Fallopia convolvulus,Silene noctiflora,Gale-

opsis ladanum,Neslia paniculata,Buglossoides arvensis,Vicia sa-

tiva,Sonchus arvensis,Chenopodium album,Setaria viridis,Polygo-

num lapathifolium,Amaranthus retroflexus,Thlaspi arvense,Erodi-

um icutatium,Cirsium setosum,Lappula squarrosa,Euphorbia wold-

steinii.

, ..-

( .1985) , -

.:Sinapis

arvensis, Panicum miliaceum,Chenopolium album,Vicia sativa,Nes-

lia paniculata,Chenopodium aristatum, Lcopsis arvensis,Thlasi

arvensis,Sonchus arvensis,Avena fatua,Chaerophyllum prescottii,

Dracocephalum thymiflorum,Taraxacum officinale,Berteroa incana.

2.3.5.

Bidentetea tripartiti Tx.,Lohm.et Prsg.in Tx.

1950,Chenopdietea Br.-Bl.1951.em Lohm.,J.et R.Tx.ex Matuszkie-

wiz 1962,Artemisietea vulgaris,Tx.,Lohm.,et Prsg.et Tx.in Tx.

1950, Agropyretea repentis Tx.,Lohm.,et Prsg.et Tx.in Tx.1950.

Plantaginetea majoris Ish.in Mirk. et al.1986.,Poligono-Artemi-

sietea austriacae Mirk.,Sach.Solm.in Mirk.et al.1986.

- Artemisietea

Poligono-Artemisietea - -

, -

.

Artemisietea vulgaris ..:Artemisia absinthium,A.vul-

garis,Achilea millefolium,Arctium tomentosum,Carduus acanthoi-

des,C.crispus,irsium vulgare, Leonurus quinquelobatus, Urtica

dioica.

-,

. , -

, .

Chenopdietea -

頠 頠 ⠠ ࠠ

Agropyretea repents.

Onopordetalia acanthii Br.-Bl.et Tx.1943 ..:Achil-

lea nobilis,Artemisia absinthium,Axyris amaranthoides,Berteroa

incana, Cirsium vulgare,Carduus acanthoides,C.nutans,Cichorium

intybus,Cynoglossum officinale,Echium vulgare, Euphorbia wald-

steinii,Nonea pulla, Pastinaca sylvestris, Potentilla impolita,

Verbascum lychnitis.

. ,

. , ,-

..

Artemisietlia vulgaris Lohm.in Tx.1947.

..:Arctum tomentosum,A.lppa,A.minus,Artemisia vulgaris, ar-

duus crispus,Conium maculatum,Dactylis glomerata,Lamium album

album,Leonurus quinquelobatus,Geum urbanum,Melandrium album,

Nepeta cataria,Urtica dioica.

-,

,..-

. Onopordeta-

lia acanthii, ,

, -

, , -

.

,

. Fstuco-

Brometea.

Polygono-Artemisietea austriacae Mirk.,Sach.et Solm.in

Mirk.et al.1986.

..:Agropyron cristatum,Alyssum turkestanicum,Artemisia aus-

triaca,Atriplex tatarica,Bassia sedoides,Ceratocarpus arenarius

Eremopyrum triticeum,Festuca valesiaca,Lepidium ruderale,Poly-

gonum aviculare.

, -

. -

, , ,

..

3.

3.1. .

頠 ,堠 -

,렠 - ,

Galio veri - Stipetum tirsa Saitov

1989 Festucion valesiaae, Festucetalia valesiacae

,

. -

, -

- 80 100 ..

3 -

- .

, -

(-

,,)  .

80-90%.

3.

, -

- .

1 2

:

Stipa zalesskii 1 - 3

S.pennata 1 - 3

S.tirsa 3 - 1

S.capillata 1 - 3

Phleum phleoides + - 1

Calamagrostis epigeios + - 1

Helictotrichon schellianum + - 1

Koeleria sclerophylla + - 1

Dactylis glomerata +

Poa angustifolia + - 1

Festuca pratensis + - 1

F.rupicola + - 1

F.valesiaca + - 1

Bromopsis inermis 1 - 3

Elytrigia lolioides 1 - 3

Agropyron pctinatum 1 - 2

: + - 1

arex pediformis

:

Genista tinctoria +

Trifolium montanum 1 - 3

T.lupinaster R+

Medicago falcata 1 - 3

Onobrychis sibirica + - 1

Vicia cracca +

Lathyrus litvinovii +

:

Polygala hybrida +

Viola ambigua +

Seseli libanotis +

Silaum silaus +

Dracocephalum thymiflorum + - 1

Salvia stepposa +

Thymus marschallianus + - 1

Veronica spicata +

Primula macrocalyx + - 1

Centaurea scabiosa + - 1

Sanguisorba officinalis 1 - 3

Hieracium echioides + - 1

Phlomis tuberosa + - 1

Gypsophila altisima + - 1

Inula hirta 1 - 3

Galium verum 1 - 3

Galium boreale 1 - 3

Veronica pniculata + - 1

Melampyrum cristatum + - 1

Plantago urvillei + - 1

Hypochoeris maculata + - 1

Scorzonera purpurea +

Adonis vernalis +

Centaurea ruthenica + - 1

Pyrethrum corymbosum +

Artemisia latifolia +

Filipendula vulgaris +

Scorzonera stricta +

Thalictrum simplex +

Thalictrum minus +

Artemisia armeniaca +

Pedicularis uralensis +

Potentilla cinerea +

Galium octonarium +

Aster alpinus +

Campanula patula + - 2

Fragaria viridis + - 1

Poligonum alpinum + - 1

Valeriana officinalis +

Ranunculus polyanthemos +

Erysimum hierecifolium +

Lappula squarrosa +

Achillea millefolium +

Achillea nobilis +

Artemisia sericea +

Silene baschkirorum +

Silene nutans +

Galatella biflora +

Tragopogon dubius +

Tragpogon orientalis +

Taraxacum officinale +

Asparagus officinalis +

Arenaria longifolia +

Potentilla erecta +

Rumex thyrsiflorus +

3.2. .

-

, -

,, ., -

(Howell,Stearn,1993). -

( Donald,1993).

. (1983,1986,1991,1994), 堠

( -

), .. - -

,

-

1:5 - 1:10.

. , -

-

. - -

-, ,

80 % .

(,

1993) (,1993) .

1989 -

.

,

,

, 3-5

, -

(Festuca

rupicola,Festuca valesiaca) (Artemisia austriaca).

 

-

- ,

-

.

4 :

1. - (1 ) -

1 * 5;(1/5)

2. - ( )

1 * 10;(1/10)

3. - (1 16 )

1 * 5;(2/5)

4. - ( )

1 * 10;(2/10)

10 * 20 .., - .

1 ..

:

1.

( , ,-

).

2. (

.,1989).

3. -

. "-

" -,

(Secalietea , Chenopodietea , Molinio-Ar-

rhenatheretea,Festuco-Brometea, Artemisietea vulgaris) ,

-

(

) ,

,, .Artemisietalia vulgaris Ono-

pordetalia acanthii,

,,

.

4.

.

-

,,

" -

" 1 .

(=2*100/+)

.1989,; -

.

4. .

4.1. .

, -

, , -

:-

, .

,-

-

.

. 4

, 5- -

. , -

-

, -

.

, -

,

,. " "

55 90% -

. 7,45

38,85 /, - 49,2 87,5,

- 13,3 55,7. ,

, " "

" ",

-

. -

"" , -

.

, -

1,7 5,2 /,

11 5,

/

/.

4.

-

(- ,-

,- )

N 蠠

B C AB BC AC

1. 頠 0,003* 0,03* 0,90 0,0006 0,002* 0,05*

*

2. - 0,03 0,01* 0,8 0 0,01* 0

3. - 0 0,08 0,22 0,02* 0 0,07*

4. - 0 0,11 0,56 0,02* 0,01* 0,09*

5. - 0,02* 0 0,55 0 0,03* 0,05*

-

6. - 0,07* 0,12 0,7 0 0,1 0,11

7. ⠠ 0,04* 0,06* 0,67 0,001* 0,01* 0,07*

8. ⠠ 0,04* 0,07 0,6 0,05* 0,03* 0,06*

9. ⠠ 0,10 0,01* 0,57 0 0,12 0

:* - ..0,95

5

.

N ꠠ

ࠠ ⠠ ()

1 2 1 2 1 2 3 4

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

1.

/ࠠ 20 21,7 18,2 23,4 7,4 6,6 30,5 38,8

2. .

堠 64,1 70,5 65,5 69,0 49,2 56,8 75,8 87,5

3. .-

⠠ 10,1 11,2 8,5 12,8 11,0 5,9 10,0 15,8

4. .-

4,8 4,9 3,1 6,7 0 2,0 7,7 9,8

5. .-

48,9 53,4 51,7 50,5 33,9 48,8 58,2 63,7

6. -

⠠ 26,6 37,8 29,9 34,5 13,3 18,2 41,8 55,7

7. - ⠠

⠠ 3,9 5,4 3,7 5,6 1,2 2,6 6,5 8,5

8. - ⠠

1,5 2,4 1,4 2,5 0 0,9 3,3 3,7

9. - ⠠

19,2 29,9 22,7 26,4 12,2 13,4 32,0 40,7

4.2.

4.2.1 1 * 5.

6 .-

, -

(1990) 13 -

, -

蠠 - Seclitea Chenopodietea (Atriplex

nitens,Sonchus asper,Cirsium setosum,Avena fatua,Convolvulus

arvense,Galeopsis bifida,Capsella bursa-pastoris,Berteroa inca-

na,Artemisia vulgaris,Matricaria perforata,Lappula squarrosa ),

..

, (Succession in abando-

ned...,1990) ( -

...,1987). , -

- -

Molinio-Arrhenatheretea(Achillea millefolium,Taraxacum offi-

cinale) . -

7,2 /.

N 6.

(

1 * 5)

-

.

90 91 92 93 94

Capsella bursa-pastoris On

1 0 0 0 0

Berteroa incana On

1 1 0 0 0

Galeopsis bifida Sec-ch

1 1 0 0 0

Atriplex nitens Sec-ch

2 1 1 0 0

Sonchus asper Sec-ch

1 1 1 0 0

Cirsium setosum Sec-ch

1 1 1 0 0

Convolvulus arvensis Sec-ch

1 1 1 0 0

Artemisia vulgaris Art

1 1 1 0 0

Avena fatua Sec-ch

2 1 1 1 0

Lappula squarrosa Art

1 1 1 1 0

Matricaria perforata Art

1 1 1 1 1

Achillea millefolium MA

1 1 1 1 1

Taraxacum officinale MA

1 1 1 1 1

Thymus marschallianus FB

0 1 1 1 1

Potentilla impolita MA

0 1 1 1 1

Festuca rupicola FB

0 1 1 1 1

Veronica spicata FB

0 1 1 1 1

Achillea nobilis FB

0 1 1 1 1

Dianthus versicolor FB

0 1 1 1 1

Trifolium montanum FB

0 1 1 1 1

Medicago romanica FB

0 1 1 1 1

Festuca pseudovina FB

0 1 1 1 1

Inula britannica MA

0 1 1 1 1

Verbascum phoniceum On

0 1 1 1 1

Echinops ritro On

0 1 1 1 1

Lepidium ruderale On

0 0 1 1 1

Eryngium planum FB

0 0 1 1 1

Sisymbrium officinale On

0 0 1 1 1

Pimpinella saxifrage FB

0 0 1 1 1

Inula hirta FB

0 0 1 1 1

Galium verum FB

0 0 1 1 1

Gelium boreale MA

0 0 1 1 1

Veronica paniculata MA

0 0 1 1 1

Festuca rubra MA

0 0 1 1 1

Rumex thyrsiflorus FB

0 0 1 1 1

Asparagus officinalis FB

0 0 1 1 1

Trgopogon orientalis FB

0 0 1 1 1

Poa angustifolia FB

0 0 1 1 1

Festuca valesiaca FB

0 0 1 1 1

Lactuca tatarica On

0 0 1 1 1

Pastinaca sativa FB

0 0 1 1 1

Fragaria viridis FB

0 0 1 1 1

Polygonum alpinum FB

0 0 1 1 1

Primula macroalyx FB

0 0 1 1 1

Artemisia sericea FB

0 0 1 1 1

Onobrychis sibirica FB

0 0 1 1 1

Genista tinctria MA

0 0 1 1 1

Medicago falcata FB

0 0 1 1 1

Bromopsis erecta FB

0 0 1 1 1

Carex pediformis FB

0 0 0 1 1

Centaurea scabiosa FB

0 0 0 1 1

Melampyrum cristatum MA

0 0 0 1 1

Plantago urvillei FB

0 0 0 1 1

Phlomis tuberosa FB

0 0 0 1 1

Scorzonera purpurea FB

0 0 0 1 1

Adonis vernalis FB

0 0 0 1 1

Vicia cracca MA

0 0 0 1 1

Artemisia latifolia MA

0 0 0 1 1

Silaum silaus MA

0 0 0 1 1

Pedicularis uralensis MA

0 0 0 1 1

Aster alpinus FB

0 0 0 1 1

Dracocephalum thymifl- FB

0 0 0 1 1

rum

Hieracium echioides FB

0 0 0 1 1

Campanula patula MA

0 0 0 1 1

Ranunculus polyanthemos MA

0 0 0 1 1

⠠ ---

13 24 46 57 55

6 - 9.

Sec-Ch - Secalitea+Chenopodietea,

Art - Artemisietalia vulgaris,

On - Onopordetalia acanthii,

MA - Molinio-Arrhenatheretea,

FB - Festuco-Brometea.

1991 .

- (Capsella bursa

-pastoris), 12 .

Molinio-Arrhe-

natheretea (Achillea millefolium,Potentilla impolita),

-Festuco-Brometea,(Thymus marschallianus,Festuca pseu-

dovina, Festuca rupicola, Veronica spicata ,Achillea nobilis ,

Dianthus versicolor,Trifolium montanum,Medicago romnica).-

-

Artemisietalia ( Artemisia vulgaris,

Matricaria perforata,Lappula squarrosa) Onopordetalia (Berte-

roa incana,Verbascum phoeniceum,Echinops ritro).

1991 . -

24, - 6,0.

1992 -

(Berteroa incana,Galeopsis bifida), -

Molinio-Arrhenatheretea

(Festuca rubra,Glium boreale,Veronica paniculata,Genista tinc-

toria ) Festuco-brometea,(Bromopsis erecta,Festuca valesiaca,

Poa angustifolia,Eryngium planum, Pimpinella saxifrage, Inula

hirta,Galium verum, Rumex thyrsiflorus, Asparagus officinalis,

Pstinaca sativa,Fragaria viridis,Poligonum lpinum,Onobrychis

sibirica,Medicago falcata,Tragopogon orientalis ,Primula macro-

calyx, Artemisia sericea).

- 46,

28,5 /.

1993 .

- (Atriplex nitens,

Sonchus asper ,Convolvulus arvensis ,Cirsium setosum ,Artemisia

, -

vulgaris), 57 .

Molinio-Arrhenatheretea (Vica

cracca,Artemisia latifolia,Achillea millefolium,Taraxacum offi-

cinale,Potentilla impolita, Genista tinctoria,Inula britannica,

Galium boreale,Veronica paniculata,Festuca rubra,Silaum silaus,

Campanula patula,Ranunculus polyanthemos)

Festuco-Brometea (Centaurea scabiosa,Plantago

urvillei,Phlomis tuberosa,Scorzonera purpurea, Adonis vernalis,

Aster alpinus,Hieracium echioides,Carex pediformis, Dracocepha-

lum thymiflorum). -

30,0 /.

1994 , -

. -

. Festuco-Brometea.

, .

55, 31,3 /.

-

, -

() -

. N 1 -

. -

,

,

Onopordetalia achanthii

.

.1

1*5

: , . N 6.

4.2.2 1 * 5.

N 7

- .

12

, -

- Secalitea Chenopdietea(Avena fatua,Atri-

plex nitens,Sonchus asper,Cirsium setosum,Convolvulus arvensis,

Galeopsis bifida). Onopordetalia

(Capsella bursa-pastoris,Berteroa incana ),

Artemisietalia (Lappula squarrosa, Artemisia vulgaris,

Matricaria perforata).

7

( -

1 * 5 )

. 90 91 92 93 94

Capsella bursa-pastoris On 1 0 0 0 0

Berteroa incana On 1 1 0 0 0

Galeopsis bifida Sec-ch 1 1 0 0 0

Atriplex nitens Sec-ch 2 1 0 0 0

Convolvulus arvensis Sec-ch 1 1 0 0 0

Cirsium setosum Sec-ch 1 1 0 0 0

Artemisia vulgaris Art 1 1 1 0 0

Avena fatua Sec-ch 2 1 1 1 0

Lappula squarrosa Art 1 1 1 1 0

Matricria perforata Art 1 1 1 1 1

Taraxacum officinale MA 1 1 1 1 1

Achillea millefolium MA 1 1 1 1 1

Thymus marschallianus FB 0 1 1 1 1

Potentilla impolita MA 0 1 1 1 1

Festuca rupicola FB 0 1 1 1 1

Veronica spicata FB 0 1 1 1 1

Achillea nobilis FB 0 1 1 1 1

Dianthus versicolor FB 0 1 1 1 1

Trifolium montanum FB 0 1 1 1 1

Filipendula vulgaris FB 0 1 1 1 1

Medicago romanica FB 0 1 1 1 1

Festuca pseudovina FB 0 1 1 1 1

Inula britannica MA 0 1 1 1 1

Verbascum phoeniceum On 0 1 1 1 1

Helictotrichon schelli-

anum FB 0 0 1 1 1

Agropyron pectinatum FB 0 0 1 1 1

Polygala hybrida FB 0 0 1 1 1

Potentilla erecta On 0 0 1 1 1

Echinops ritro On 0 0 1 1 1

Lepidium ruderale On 0 0 1 1 1

Bromopsis erecta FB 0 0 1 1 1

Eryngium planum FB 0 0 1 1 1

Sisymbrium officinale On 0 0 1 1 1

Pimpinella saxifragࠠ FB 0 0 1 1 1

Inula hirta FB 0 0 1 1 1

Galium verum FB 0 0 1 1 1

Glium boreale MA 0 0 1 1 1

Veronica paniculata MA 0 0 1 1 1

Festuca rubra MA 0 0 1 1 1

Rumex thyrsiflorus FB 0 0 1 1 1

Asparagus officinalis FB 0 0 1 1 1

Traogopogon orientalis FB 0 0 1 1 1

Poa angustifolia FB 0 0 1 1 1

Festuca valesiaca FB 0 0 1 1 1

Lactuca tatarica On 0 0 1 1 1

Pastinaca sativa FB 0 0 1 1 1

Fragaria viridis FB 0 0 1 1 1

Polygonum alpinum FB 0 0 1 1 1

Primula macrocalyx FB 0 0 1 1 1

Artemisia sericea FB 0 0 1 1 1

Onobrychis sibirica FB 0 0 0 1 1

Genista tinctria MA 0 0 0 1 1

Medicago falcata FB 0 0 0 1 1

Bromopsis inermis FB 0 0 0 1 1

Carex pediformis FB 0 0 0 1 1

Centaurea scabiosa FB 0 0 0 1 1

Melampyrum cristatum 0 0 0 1 1

Plantago urvilllei FB 0 0 0 1 1

Phlomis tuberosa FB 0 0 0 1 1

Scorzonera purpurea FB 0 0 0 1 1

Adonis vernalis FB 0 0 0 1 1

Thalictrum minus MA 0 0 0 1 1

Vica cracca MA 0 0 0 1 1

Artemisia latifolia MA 0 0 0 1 1

Silaum silaus MA 0 0 0 1 1

Thalictrum simplex MA 0 0 0 1 1

Artemisia armeniaca FB 0 0 0 1 1

Pedicularis uralensis MA 0 0 0 1 1

Aster alpinus FB 0 0 0 1 1

Seseli libanotis FB 0 0 0 1 1

Dracocephlum thymifl- FB 0 0 0 1 1

rum

Hieracium echioides FB 0 0 0 1 1

Stipa zalesskii FB 0 0 0 0 1

Stipa pennata FB 0 0 0 0 1

Stipa tirsa FB 0 0 0 0 1

Scorzonera stricta FB 0 0 0 0 1

Phleum phleoides FB 0 0 0 0 1

Trifolium lupinaster MA 0 0 0 0 1

Caragana frutex FB 0 0 0 0 1

Astragalus danicus FB 0 0 0 0 1

Campanula patula MA 0 0 0 0 1

Ranunculus polyanthemos MA 0 0 0 0 1

⠠ 12 23 44 66 73

:a , .N 6

,

,

. , -

.

Molinio-Arrhenatheretea (Achillea millefolium,Taraxacum offici-

nale). - 7,4 /.

1991 . -

23, - 6,0/.

.

- Capsella bursa-pastoris , -

12 . -

Molinio-Arrhenatheretea ( Potentilla

impolita, Inula britannica) Festuco - Brometea

(Thymus marschallianus ,Dianthus versicolor,Trifolium montanum,

Medicago romanica,Filipendula vulgaris,Festuca rupicola,Veroni-

ca spicata,Achillea nobilis,Festuca pseudovina).

Artemisietalia vulgaris (Artemisia vulgaris,

Matricaria perforata ,Lappula squarrosa), Onopordetalia

acanthii(Verbascum phoeniceum).

1992

(Berteroa incana,Atriplex nitens,Convolvulus arevensis,Cirsium

setosum,Galeopsis bifida).

(Festuca rubra,Veronica paniculata, Bro-

mopsis erecta,Festuca pratensis,Festuca valesiaca, Poa angusti-

folia,Eryngium planum,Pimpinella saxifraga, Inula hirta , Rumex

thyrsiflorus , Asparagus officinalis ,Pastinaca sativa,Medicago

falcata,Agropyron pectinatum,Helictotrichon schellianum,Polyga-

la hybrida , Galium verum ,Galium boreale,Tragopogon orientalis,

Fragaria viridis,Polygonum alpinum,Primula macrocalyx , Artemi-

sia sericea).

- 44, -

28,6 /.

1993 . -

- (Artemisia vulgaris).

66 . -

Molinio-Arrhenatheretea (Genista tinctoria,

Thalictrum minus,Vica cracca,Artemisia latifolia,Silaum silaus,

Pedicularis uralensis,Thalictrum simplex,Melampyrum cristatum).

Festuco-brometea (Plan-

tago urvillei,Scorzonera purpurea,Adonis vernalis,Aster alpinus

Dracocephalum thymiflorum,Hieracium echioides,Fragaria viridis,

Poligonum alpinum,Achillea nobilis,Onobrychis sibirica, Seseli

libanotis,Artemisia areniaca,Phlomis tuberosa , Centaurea sca-

biosa,Carex pediformis,Bromopsis inermis,Medicado falcata).

46,5 /.

1994 .

Festuco-Brometea, -

-

: Stipa zalesskii,St.pennata,St.tirsa, :Cara-

gana frutex,Astragalus danicus. 73,

43,4 /.

-

, -

() -

(.2).

.2

1 * 5.

: , .N 6

4.2.3 1 * 10.

N 8 .

. -

- (1990) -

13 .

- Secalitea

Chenopdietea (Avena fatua,Atriplex nitens,Sonchus asper,Cir-

sium setosum,Convolvulus arvensis , Galeopsis bifida), -

Artemisietalia vulgaris ( Artemisia vulgaris,Matricaria

perforata) , Onopordetalia acanthii(Capsella bursa-pas-

toris ,Berteroa incana).

8

( -

1 * 10 )

-

.

90 91 92 93 94

Capsella bursa-pastoris On

1 1 0 0 0

Berteroa incana On

1 1 0 0 0

Atriplex nitens Sec-ch

1 1 0 0 0

Sonchus asper Sec-ch

1 1 0 0 0

Convolvulus arvensis Sec-ch

1 1 0 0 0

Cirsium setosum Sec-ch

1 1 0 0 0

Artemisia vulgaris Art

1 1 0 0 0

Avena fatua Sec-ch

2 1 0 0 0

Lappula squarrosa Art

1 1 0 0 0

Galeopsis bifida Sec-ch

1 1 0 0 0

Matricaria perforata Art

1 1 1 1 0

Taraxacum officinale MA

1 1 1 1 1

Achillea millefolium MA

1 1 1 1 1

Thymus marschallianus FB

0 1 1 1 1

Potentilla impolita MA

0 1 1 1 1

Dianthus versicolor FB

0 1 1 1 1

Trifolium montanum FB

0 1 1 1 1

Filipendula vulgaris FB

0 1 1 1 1

Medicago romanica FB

0 1 1 1 1

Poa angustifolia FB

0 1 1 1 1

Festuca valesiaca FB

0 1 1 1 1

Festuca rupicola FB

0 0 1 1 1

Veronica spicata FB

0 0 1 1 1

Achillea nobilis FB

0 0 1 1 1

Festuca pseudovina FB

0 0 1 1 1

Inula britannica MA

0 0 1 1 1

Verbascum phoeniceum On

0 0 1 1 1

Helictotrichon schelli-

anum FB

0 0 1 1 1

Agropyron pectinatum FB

0 0 1 1 1

Polygala hybrida FB

0 0 1 1 1

Potentilla erecta On

0 0 1 1 1

Echinops ritro On

0 0 1 1 1

Lepidium ruderale On

0 0 1 1 1

Eryngium planum FB

0 0 1 1 1

Sisymbrium officinale On

0 0 1 1 1

Pimpinella saxifragࠠ FB

0 0 1 1 1

Inula hirta FB

0 0 1 1 1

Galium verum FB

0 0 1 1 1

Galium boreale MA

0 0 1 1 1

Veronica paniculata MA

0 0 1 1 1

Festuca rubra MA

0 0 1 1 1

Rumex thyrsiflorus FB

0 0 1 1 1

Asparagus officinalis FB

0 0 1 1 1

Lactuca tatarica On

0 0 1 1 1

Pastinaca sativa FB

0 0 1 1 1

Fragaria viridis FB

0 0 1 1 1

Polygonum alpinum FB

0 0 1 1 1

Primula macroalyx FB

0 0 1 1 1

Onobrychis sibirica FB

0 0 1 1 1

Genista tinctria MA

0 0 1 1 1

Medicago falcata FB

0 0 1 1 1

Bromopsis erecta FB

0 0 1 1 1

Carex pediformis FB

0 0 1 1 1

Centaurea scabiosa FB

0 0 1 1 1

Melampyrum cristatum MA

0 0 1 1 1

Plantago urvillei FB

0 0 1 1 1

Phlomis tuberosa FB

0 0 1 1 1

Scorzonera purpurea FB

0 0 1 1 1

Adonis vernalis FB

0 0 1 1 1

Campanula patula MA

0 0 1 1 1

Ranunculus polyanthemos MA

0 0 1 1 1

Arenaria longifolia MA

0 0 1 1 1

Vica cracca MA

0 0 1 1 1

Elytrigia lolioides FB

0 0 1 1 1

Phleum phleoides FB

0 0 1 1 1

Artemisia latifolia MA

0 0 1 1 1

Silaum silaus MA

0 0 1 1 1

Festuca pratensis

0 0 1 1 1

Thalictrum simplex MA

0 0 1 1 1

Artemisia armeniaca FB

0 0 1 1 1

Pedicularis uralensis MA

0 0 1 1 1

Aster alpinus FB

0 0 1 1 1

Dracocephalum thymiflo- FB

0 0 1 1 1

rum

Seseli libanotis FB

0 0 1 1 1

Hieracium echioides FB

0 0 1 1 1

Trgopogon orientalis FB

0 0 0 1 1

Artemisia sericea FB

0 0 0 1 1

S.pennata FB

0 0 0 1 1

Stipa zalesskii FB

0 0 0 0 1

S.tirsa FB

0 0 0 0 1

Scorzonera stricta FB

0 0 0 0 1

Euphorbia semivillosa FB

0 0 0 0 1

Trifolium lupinaster MA

0 0 0 0 1

Caragana frutex FB

0 0 0 0 1

Astragalus danicus FB

0 0 0 0 1

Onosma simpliscissima FB

0 0 0 0 1

13 21 65 68 75

: , N 6.

-

, .

, - c

.

Molinio-Arrhenatheretea(Achillea millefolium , Taraxacum

officinale).

- 7,4 /.

1991 ,

. -

- ,

8 .

Molinio-Arrhenatheretea( Potentilla impolita),

Festuco-Brometea(Thymus marschallianus,Dianthus ver-

versicolor, Poa angustifolia Trifolium montanum, Medicago roma-

nica,Festuca valesiaca, Filipendula vulgaris).

Artemisietalia vulgaris ( Artemisia vulgaris,Matricaria

perforata ,Loppula squarrosa).

1991 .

- 7,1 /.

1992 -

( Capsella bursa-pastoris,Berteroa incana ,Atriplex nitens,

Sonchus asper , Convolvulus arvensis,Cirsium setosum,Artemisia

vulgaris, Avena fatua , Lappula squarrosa,Galeopsis bifida).

Mo-

linio-Arrenateretea ( Festuca rubra ,Inula britannica, Veronica

paniculata,Galium boreale ,Genista tinctoria,Vicia cracca , Ar-

temisia latifolia, Silaum silaus, Thalictrum simplex , Festuca

pratensis , Pedicularis uralensis , Campanula patula , Arenaria

longifolia, Melampyrum cristatum, Ranunculus polyanthemos)

Festuco-Brometea(Bromopsis erecta,Pimpinella saxifraga,

Inula hirta,Rumex thyrsiflorus, Asparagus officinalis,Pstinaca

sativa ,Medicago falcata, Festuca rupicola,Festuca pseudovina,

gropyron pectinatum, Helictotrichon schellianum, Veronica spi-

cata,Eringium planum,Achillea nobilis,Galium verum,Fragaria vi-

ridis,Poligonum alpinum ,Onobrychis sibirica,Carex pediformis,

Centaurea scabiosa,Plantago urvillei,Scorzonera purpurea,Adonis

vernalis,Artemisia armeniaca, Sesli libanotis , Aster alpinus,

Dracocephalum thymiflorum, Hieracium echioides, Elytrigia lo-

lioides , Phleum phleoides ,Primula macroalyx,Polygala hybrida

Phlomis tuberosa).

- 65,

,

29,1 /.

1993 -

.

68 .

Festuco Brometea.

:Stipa

ennata,Trgopogon orientalis,Artemisia sericea,

, 30,4 /.

1994 c

.

- Artemisietalia vulgaris: Matri-

caria perforata. Onopordetalia acanthii

( Verbascum phoeniceum, Potentilla erecta ,Echinops

ritro,Lepidium ruderale,Sisymbrium officinale,Lactuca tatarica).

Festuco-Brometea.

-

Festuco-Brometea Stipa zles-

skii ,S.tirsa,Caragana frutex,Astragalus danicus,Galatella bif-

lora , Onosma simpliscissima ,Eufphorbia semivillosa,Scorzonera

strict.

75, 31,0 /.

-

N 3. -

() -

.

.3 -

1 * 10.

: ,

N6.

4.2.4 - 1*10

N 9 .

- ,

(1990) , -

, 13 ,

- Secalitea

Chenopodietea (Avena fatua,Atriplex nitens, Sonchus asper,Cir-

sium setosum,Convolvulus arvensis, Galeopsis bifida).

9

( - 1 * 10)

-

.

90 91 92 93 94

Capsella bursa-pastoris On

1 1 0 0 0

Berteroa incana On

1 1 0 0 0

Atriplex nitens Sec-ch

1 1 0 0 0

Sonchus asper Sec-ch

1 1 0 0 0

Convolvulus arvensis Sec-ch

1 1 0 0 0

Cirsium setosum Sec-ch

1 1 0 0 0

Artemisia vulgaris Art

1 1 0 0 0

Matricaria perforata Art

1 1 0 0 0

Avena fatua Sec-ch

1 1 0 0 0

Lappula squarrosa Art

1 1 0 0 0

Galeopsis bifida Sec-ch

1 1 0 0 0

Achillea millefolium MA

1 1 1 1 1

Taraxacum officinale MA

1 1 1 1 1

Thymus marschallianus FB

0 1 1 1 1

Poa angustifolia FB

0 1 1 1 1

Festuca valesiaca FB

0 1 1 1 1

Filipendula vulgaris FB

0 1 1 1 1

Dianthus versicolor FB

0 1 1 1 1

Trifolium montanum FB

0 1 1 1 1

Medicago romanica FB

0 1 1 1 1

Potentilla impolita MA

0 1 1 1 1

Festuca rupicola FB

0 0 1 1 1

Veronica spicata FB

0 0 1 1 1

Achillea nobilis FB

0 0 1 1 1

Festuca pseudovina FB

0 0 1 1 1

Inula britannica MA

0 0 1 1 1

Verbascum phoniceum On

0 0 1 1 1

Helictotrichon schelli-

anum FB

0 0 1 1 1

Agropyron pectinatum FB

0 0 1 1 1

Echinops ritro On

0 0 1 1 1

Lepidium ruderale On

0 0 1 1 1

Eryngium planum FB

0 0 1 1 1

Sisymbrium officinale On

0 0 1 1 1

Pimpinella saxifrage FB

0 0 1 1 1

Inula hirta FB

0 0 1 1 1

Galium verum FB

0 0 1 1 1

Galium boreale MA

0 0 1 1 1

Veronica paniculata MA

0 0 1 1 1

Festuca rubra MA

0 0 1 1 1

Rumex thyrsiflorus FB

0 0 1 1 1

Asparagus officinalis FB

0 0 1 1 1

Trgopogon orientalis FB

0 0 1 1 1

Festuca pratensis

0 0 1 1 1

Lactuca tatarica On

0 0 1 1 1

Pastinaca sativa FB

0 0 1 1 1

Fragaria viridis FB

0 0 1 1 1

Polygonum alpinum FB

0 0 1 1 1

Onobrychis sibirica FB

0 0 1 1 1

Genista tinctria MA

0 0 1 1 1

Medicago falcata FB

0 0 1 1 1

Bromopsis erecta FB

0 0 1 1 1

Carex pediformis FB

0 0 1 1 1

Centaurea scabiosa FB

0 0 1 1 1

Melampyrum cristatum MA

0 0 1 1 1

Plantago urvillei FB

0 0 1 1 1

Phlomis tuberosa FB

0 0 1 1 1

Scorzonera purpurea FB

0 0 1 1 1

Adonis vernalis FB

0 0 1 1 1

Thalictrum minus MA

0 0 1 1 1

Vicia cracca MA

0 0 1 1 1

Artemisia latifolia MA

0 0 1 1 1

Silaum silaus MA

0 0 1 1 1

Lapulla squarrosa Art

0 0 1 1 1

Thalictrum simplex MA

0 0 1 1 1

Artemisia armeniaca FB

0 0 1 1 1

Pedicularis uralensis MA

0 0 1 1 1

Aster alpinus FB

0 0 1 1 1

Seseli libanotis FB

0 0 1 1 1

Dracocephalum thymifl- FB

0 0 1 1 1

rum

Hieracium echioides FB

0 0 1 1 1

Phleum phleoides FB

0 0 1 1 1

Trifolium lupinaster MA

0 0 1 1 1

Astragalus danicus FB

0 0 1 1 1

Campanula patula MA

0 0 1 1 1

Ranunculus polyanthemos MA

0 0 1 1 1

Onosma simpliscissima FB

0 0 1 1 1

Euphorbia semivillosa FB

0 0 1 1 1

Caragana frutex FB

0 0 0 1 1

Stipa zalesskii FB

0 0 0 0 1

S.tirsa FB

0 0 0 0 1

S.pennata FB

0 0 0 0 1

S.capillata FB

0 0 0 0 1

Bromopsis inermis FB

0 0 0 0 1

Elytrigia lolioides FB

0 0 0 0 1

Artemisia sericea FB

0 0 0 0 1

Scorzonera stricta FB

0 0 0 0 1

Polygala hybrida FB

0 0 0 0 1

Galatella biflora FB

0 0 0 0 1

Pyrethrum corymbosum FB

0 0 0 0 1

13 21 66 67 78

: , N 6.

-

, -

Molinio-Arrhe-

natheretea (Achillea millefolium,Taraxacum officinale). -

- 7,4 /.

1991 .

-

- ,

8 .

Molinio-Arrhenatheretea(Potentilla impolita) -

-Festuco-Brometea (Thymus marschallianus, Dianthus versicolor,

Trifolium montanum,Medicago romanica, Filipendula vulgaris, Poa

angustifolia,Festuca valesiaca).

Ar-

temisietalia vulgaris (Artemisia vulgaris,Matricaria perforata,

Lppula squarrosa).

(1991) . -

21, - 7,2 .

1992 -

(Capsella bursa-pastoris,Berteroa incana,Atriplex nitens,

Sonchus asper,Convolvulus arvenseis,Cirsium setosum, Artemisia

vulgaris, Matricaria perforata, Avena fatua, Lappula squarrosa,

Galeopsis bifida.).

Molinio-Arrhenatheretea(Inula britannica,Festuca rubra,

Veronica paniculata,Festuca pratensis,Melampyrum cristatum,Tha-

lictrum minus,Vicia cracca, Artemisia latifolia, Silaum silaus,

Genista tinctria,Thalictrum simplex,Pedicularis uralensis,Tri-

folium lupinaster,Campanula patula,Ranunculus polyanthemos, Ga-

lium boreale) Festuco-brometea:Bromopsis erecta,Festuca vale-

siaca, Poa angustifolia, Eryngium planum, Pimpinella saxifraga,

Inula hirta,Rumex thyrsiforus, Asparagus officinalis, Pstinaca

sativa,Medicago falcata,Festuca rupicola,Festuca pseudovina,Ag-

ropyron pectinatum,Helictotrichon schellianum,Polygala hybrida,

Veronica spicata,Achillea nobilis, Plantago urvillei,Scorzonera

purpurea,Adonis vernalis, Aster alpinus,Dracocephalum thymiflo-

rum,Hieracium echioides,Fragaria viridis,Poligonum alpinum, Ac-

hillea nobilis,Onobrychis sibirica, Seseli libanotis, Artemisia

armeniaca,Galium verum,Trgopogon orientalis,Fragaria viridis,

Polygonum alpinum,Onobrychis sibirica,Carex pediformis, Centau-

rea scabiosa,Phlomis tuberosa,Phleum phleoides,Astragalus dani-

cus,Onosma simpliscissima,Euphorbia semivillosa).

- 66, -

,

33,7 /.

1993 .

67 .

Festuco-Brometea (Caragana frutex) .

-

48,2 /.

1994

. Festuco-Brome-

tea.

Festuco-Brometea ( Stipa zlesskii, St.pennata, St.tirsa,Stipa

capillata , Bromopsis inermis , Elytrigia lolioides , Artemisia

sericea,Scorzonera stricta, Polygala hybrida,Galatella biflora,

Pyrethrum corymbosum ) . 78, -

48,3 /.

-

4, -

() -

.

.4 -

1 * 10.

: , N 6.

4.3 .

-

, --

,.. -

- ,

, - ,

-

.

, -

, -

. ,..

"" -

, - . 

, -

, -

. -

,

,

.

10,-

. ,

.

10.

.

⠠ 1 * 5

Ƞ 頠

90 91 92 93 94 90 91 92 93 94

1.頠 /ࠠ 7,2 6,0 28,5 30,0 31,3 6,0 28,6 46,5 43,4

7,4

2. . %% 46,6 35,3 60,3 80,0 85,0 40, 50,6 70,6 80,6 85,0

6

:

3.蠠 %% 15,0 5 4,6 12,3 12,4 5,3 13,3 17,6 18,0

8,3

4.堠 %% - 1,8 5,7 8,3 8,6 - 3,0 11,3 9,0 9,5

5.堠 %% 28,3 48,6 53,6 58,6 58,9 38, 48,3 52,0 60,0 62,0

3

6. ⠠ . 13,0 24,0 46,0 57,0 55,0 12, 23,0 44,0 66,0 73,0

0

:

7.蠠 . 1 2 3 7 7 1 2 8 10 10

8.堠 . 0 1 2 4 4 0 1 5 6 6

9.堠 . 12 21 41 16 44 11 20 31 50 57

10

⠠ 1 * 10

Ƞ 頠

90 91 92 93 94 90 91 92 93 94

1.頠 /㠠 29, 30, 31, 33, 48, 48,

ࠠ 7,4 7,1 1 4 0 7,4 7,2 7 2 3

2. - %% 51, 50, 80, 90, 95, 51, 58, 71, 93, 95,

6 6 0 0 0 6 3 6 3 0

. :

3.蠠 %% 12, 14, 11, 11, 14, 21, 22,

7,8 2,8 7,6 0 0 3 0 3 3 0

4.堠 %% - - 10 16, 17,

1,8 3,6 3,3 5,1 1,8 3 1

5.堠 %% 25, 52, 68, 74, 75, 40, 45, 58, 61, 65,

3 6 6 6 0 3 6 3 6 0

6. ⠠ 13, 21, 65, 68, 75, 13, 21, 66, 67, 78,

. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

:

7.蠠 1 3 6 9 9 1 4 10 10 10

.

8.堠 0 2 3 2 1 0 1 6 6 8

.

9.堠 12 16 56 56 65 12 16 51 51 60

.

.5.

.

:

.

.6

.

: .

.7

.

:

.

.8

.

:

.

.9

.

:

.

.10

.

:

.

.11

.

:

.

.12

.

:

.

.13

.

:

.

5 -13 -

:, , . -

, -

,

. 1 * 5 1 * 10 -

- 31,3;43,4/

31,0 ;48,3 / . -

55,0-73,0;75 78.

5 -13

. , -

. -

. -

, -

, -

.

, -

.

.14 .

:

.

. -

, --

.

-

.

. N14 ,

, -

-

50%, -

, ,-

(75%) -

1*10.

.

ꠠ -

. , -

.

,

.

, -

,

ꠠ 堠 ,

. . ""

-

. ...-

(1993) -

.-

-

( , -

)

. ,, -

...

5. 頠

.

-

. -

.

.( ,, 1968 ;,

1975 ; ,, 1975 ; , , 1976,

1976, 1978,1980,1982 ; ,, 1986 ;, 1988,1991 ;

.1995; ... 1994).

5.1 .

-

-

. (

, , -

).

11.-

, -

, -

, ,

, -

-

1:5 .

,

.

-

, (-

, -

), :

-

, . ,

, -

. , . (1992),

, -

,

. ,.. -

-

.

, .

,

.

,

,

.

11

(/)

ࠠ 5 .

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

9,3 9,2 27,7 29,2 29,2 20,9

1- .

1:5 7,2 6,0 28,5 30,0 31,3 20,6

2- .

1:5 7,4 6,0 28,6 46,5 43,4 26,3

1- .

1:10 7,4 7,1 29,1 30,4 31,0 21,0

2- .

1:10 7,4 7,2 33,7 48,2 48,3 28,9

Р 0,78 0,38 3,21 11,5 4,01

5.2. .

, 3,

-

Festucion valestacae Helictotricho stipetalia,

,

. -

.. (,.1995)

- .

Festucion valesiecae.

1. 1-4 . ., ,-7 .

 頠 蠠 Tragopogono

orientalis-Stipetum dasyphyllae Saitov 1989 Festucion

valesiacae. - 87

100 .. -

80-90%, 40-50 .

Stipa pennata, Stipa desyphilla,

Stipa pulcherrima. 蠠 Trifolium

lupinaster, Trifolium montanum, Genista tinctoria.

. ,

, -

(Betonica officinalis,

Anemone sylvestris, Solidago virgaurea, Hypericum elegans).

Calamagrostis epigeios,

Poa pratensis, Poa angustifolia, Phleum phleoides).

- -

堠 Rosa cinnamomea, Rosa majalis,

Chamaecythisus ruthenicus Carex pediformis. -

.

2. 2-5 . ., ,9 .

-

Galio veri-Stipetum tirsae Saitov 1989

Festucion valesiacae. 74

100 .. 80-85%, -

45 . Stipa pennata, Stipa

tirsa, Stipa pulcherrima, Festuca pseudovina. -

Calamagrostis epigeios, Phleum phleoides, Bromopsis

inermis, Poa angustifolia. Carex pediformis

젠 . 蠠 Rosa majalis,

Chamaecytisus ruthenicus. Medicago falcata,

Astragalus danicus, Onobrychis sibirica, Genista tinctoria,

Trifolium lupinaster. Fragaria viridis,

Artemisia sericea, Adonis vernalis . -

.

3. 3-3 .   ., ,3 .

-

젠 蠠 Artemisio latifolii-Helictotrichietum

schelliani Saitov 1993 Festucion valesiacae. -

69 100

.. 70-80%, 50 ,

.   堠 Festuca

pseudovina, Stipa pennata, Stipa dasyphylla.

Koeleria cristata, Bromopsis inermis, Elytrigia

repens, Phleum phleoides, Dactylis glomerata, Poa angustifolia

. Medicago falcata, Vicia

tenuifolia, Astragalus onobrychis, Genista tinctoria, Trifolium

lupinaster, Trifolium montanum. Seseli

libanotis, Phlomis tuberosa, Veronica spicata, Myosotis popovii.

.

4. 4-3 . Ѡ ., , 8 .

- -

 Betonico officinalis-Stipetum

pennatae Saitov 1989 Festucion valesiacae.

61 25 ..

75-80%, 40-45 ,

5%.   Stipa

pennata, Poa angustifolia, Bromopsis inermis.

Festuca valesiaca, Stipa capillata, Stipa tirsa, Phleum

phleoides, Carex pediformis .

Caragana frutex, Rosa cinnamomea,

Chamaecytisus ruthenicus. Trifolium

montanum, Trifolium lupinaster, Astragalus danicus, Astragalus

austriacus, Medicago falcata, Onobrychis sibirica, Genista

tinctoria. 堠  Artemisia latifolia,

Artemisia commutata, Seseli libanotis, Galium verum, Filipendula

vulgaris, Pulsatilla patens, Achyrophorus maculatus, Hieracium

virosum, Primula macrocalyx, Fragaria viridis . -

.

5. 5-6 .   ., ,22 .

- Alysso

turkestanici-Stipetum capillatae Saitov 1995 Festucion

valesiacae. 66 -

100 ..

75%, - 45 , -

5%.   Festuca rupicola, Stipa

pennata. Stipa capillata, Bromopsis

inermis, Elytrigia repens, Poa angustifolia .

Chamaecytisus ruthenicus, Caragana frutex, Spiraea

crenata. 堠 Medicago falcata, Genista

tinctoria, Astragalus onobrychis, Trifolium montanum, Vicia

cracca, Onobrychis sibirica. Aster

alpinus, Adonis vernalis, Fragaria viridis, Seseli libanotis,

Inula hirta, Campanula patula Scorzonera purpurea .

.

6. 6-4 . ., ,9 .

- Galio

veri-Stipetum tirsae Saitov 1989 Festucion valesiacae.

73 -

100 ..

80%, - 40 , -

. Stipa pennata.

Festuca rupicola, Stipa dasyphylla,

Stipa capillata, Stipa tirsa, Bromopsis inermis, Poa

angustifolia, Elytrigia repens, Poa stepposa. -

Medicago falcata, Trifolium montanum,

Vicia tenuifolia, Astragalus onobrychis. .

⠠ Achillea

millefolium, Filipendula vulgaris, Aster alpinus, Artemisia

campestris, Artemisia serocea, Gypsophila altissima,

Campanula sibirica, Centarea scabiosa .

.

7. 7-5 . Ǡ ., ,8 .

- Betonico

officinalis-Stipetum pennatae Saitov 1989 Festucion

valesiacae. 64

100 ..

70-80%, - 45 , -

.   Festuca

rupicola Stipa pennata. Stipa

pulcherrima, Stipa capillata, Bromopsis inermis, Elytrigia

repens, Poa angustifolia 蠠 . 蠠

Chamaecytisus ruthenicus. Medicago falcata,

Genista tinctoria, Astragalus onobrychis, Astragalus danicus,

Trifolium montanum, Trifolium pratense, Oxytropis pilosa, Vicia

cracca, Onobrychis sibirica.

Fragaria viridis, Aster alpinus, Seseli libanotis, Inula hirta,

Scorzonera purpurea, Solidago virgaurea .

.

( Helictotricho-Stipion)

8. 1-4 . .I-, ,12 .

-

Stipetum rubentis Toman 1969

Helictotricho-Stipion, .

67

100 ..

75-80%, - 40-45 , -

10%. ,

Stipa zalesskii. 堠

Helictotrichon desertorum, Stipa capillata, Koeleria cristata,

Stipa lessingiana, Festuca pseudovina, Poa stepposa, Festuca

valesiaca. Carex pediformis, Carex supina.

- Caragana frutex, Spiraea crenata, Spiraea

hypericifolia, Cotoneaster melanocarpus.

Phlomis tuberosa, Galium ruthenicum, Artemisia

commutata, Hieracium echioides, Potentilla humifusa, Plantago

urvillei. .

9. 2-6 .   ., ,6 .

C 頠 蠠 Tanaceto

millefolii-Helictrotrichetum desertorum Zhirnova et Saitov

1995 Helictotricho-Stipion.

65 100 ..

75%, - 30-40

, 10-15%. -

Helictotrichon desertorum, Stipa zalesskii.

Stipa pennata, Stipa capillata, Koeleria cristata, Festuca

pseudovina, Poa stepposa.  ࠠ Carex

pediformis. Spiraea crenata,

Caragana frutex. -

Salvia stepposa, Achillea nobilis, Artemisia latifolia,

Artemisia armeniaca, Galium ruthenicum, Potentilla humifusa.

C .

-

, " " Ԡ (Stipa

pennata,St.pulcherrima,St.sareptana,St.zalesskii,St.dasyphylla,

St.tirsa,St.lessingiana,Koeleria sclerophylla, Tulipa bieber-

steinii,Iris sibirica,Fritillaria ruthenica .),

.

-

-

.

.

. -

,, -

.

-

,

, -

- - .-

.

1. . -

. -

-

55 78 .

2. .

3-5 28,5 - 48,3 /

.

3. , -

, -

,

1 * 5.

4. -

, -

-

蠠 -

Molinio-Arrhenatheretea Festuco-Brometea.

-

-75,4 %.

5. -

, -

. -

.

6.

-

. -

.

.

.., ..

-

//,1980 N 1..22-34.

.. //

.,-.:,1964....300-447.

.., ..

// .-

:,.-,1986..59-61.

.., .. -

-

//. ,..,1983.N 6..46-62.

.. -

//. . ,

1948..3.-535 .

.. ... ,1954-296 .

..

// ,1975.N11.-.32-33.

.. //

..:1984..62-64.

.., .. .

.//-.-

,1986. N 11. .75-79.

.. -

//.,1979..64, N 12..1697-1714..

.. -

: , , // .. VII

Π . :,. -, 1983. . 310-311.

.., .. -

- , -

.//,1981. N.-.9-23.

.., ..

(- ).//

. ,

1984..3-65.

.., ..

(- ).: 1992.110 .

.., ..

// -

⠠ .

. , .-, 1977.-. 153-182.

..

// ../., 1977.-.153-182.

.. -

//

.: ,1988..63-68.

..,-- ..

.//

, 1952..37, N 5..671-678.

.., .. -

// . 1975. N3 .36-37.

.., .. - -

. -

// .-

. ,1976 .8. 92-95.

.., .. //,1976.

N 2. 41.

.., .. -

// . 1978. N2. .-18-20.

.., .. .

-:,1980. -160 C.

.., .. .-.:-

, 1982. 111 .

.. -

.// -

: . .-.: ,

. 1993.- .100-110.

..

.:,1984. 190 .

.:.-

, 1987. 121.

..- -

- ..: ,1979.199 .

.. -

.// III

.. -

., 1983. .53-59.

.. -

. -

.. 1986. 39 .

.. //, 1991. N 9. .59-63.

.. -

- // -

-

// -

30-

14-16 1994 ., 1994 .42-46.

.. .//

, - , 1986. . 91,.2..122-131.

.., ..

// ,1994. N5. .393-401.

.. .

.. 1966. 124 .

.., .., .., .. -

, .

: - , 1988. - 161 .

.. .-

.-: .-,1964.-210 .

.., ..

蠠 蠠 頠 .//.

., 1992 - N 14 - .136-148.

.. -

// -

. .: -

,1985. .113-123.

.., .. .

( )// -

..,1977. .62. N 5. .654-663.

..,- ..

. ..:- ,1941. .1.- 176 C.

.. -

.// ..:1954.-.103-128.

.., .. -

.//...-

.. . 1988..141-142.

.. .-.:-

,1980.-429 .

.. . // -

-

..: - ,

1952..70-77.

..,..,.. 蠠 .2-堠 .,.

.-.:...1990.600 .

.. .:,1969 -

550 .

..

.......,1978.24 .

.. -

, //...-,

1969..15,.3. .143-153.

.. -

//

.,1984. . 29-45.

..

//..,1986. .73, N 3. .391-400.

.., .. --

.//. .-.:

,1986.-.83-87.

., .., -

Ambrosia artemisiefolia   -

.// -

.: , 1986. . 49-55.

.., .. //

,1983..95, .2. .304-318.

.. //

, . ..:.1984. 5. 139-232.

.. 堠 -

.: , - 1985. 137 .

.., ., ., .., .

.// ,1985-. 155 .

.. ..: ,1986.

161 .

.., ., .. -

. :, 1989.222 .

.. -

-.//

.., 1989.- N 9-.1-128.

.., .. -

// ,1989. N 1. .7-17.

.., .., .. -

.// -

.. - , 1980. .27-53.

.. -

.//: .

,1965..264-282.

.., .., .. .//

: , 1985. 117 .

.. -

.

// (..) :

,1990.70 .

A.X. .//.

, 1992.118 .

A.X.-

(- ) : ,

. / , 1994. 33 .

.. --

.//

. ...,1982..3,N 15..24-34.

..

- .// .-

: ,1989..42-52.

.. :..//-: .

..1995.238 .

. ( ... )

.1987.120 .

. , .

. .. . 1994. 98 .

.., .. -

// III

. : - ͠ ,

1972..28-29.

.., .. -

.// VIII

, . . - , 1973.

.78-80.

.. -

.// . :

, 1980. .53-75.

.., .., .., .. //

.

III. .//

.." " 675-686. . .

1986. .40.

.. .- , 1993. 371 .

⠠ .. ..:-

, 1987.160 .

.. ..:- , 1985.176 .

.. ..:- , 1984.319 .

....:- , 1983.292 .

.. -

// -

.,1976. .

46-62.

.. -

//-

..:,1969. . 10-84.

..

.// (. -

). ,1986.-.101

.. -

//-

, 1987.N 3..26-30.

.. Polygono- Artemi-

sietea austriacae.// .

: .,1988.-.147-148.

.. .

I.蠠 (蠠 Festucetalia valesiacae,

Helictotricho-Stipetalia).//.:,1989 ,N 4150-89.

.-29 .

.. .

II. ( Galietatia

veri,Onosmetalia,Polygono-Artemisietalia austriacae)// .:

,1989 ,N 4141-89..-27 .

.. ...:,

1989 -N6237-89.-13 .

.. Festucetalia

valesiacae // :-

...: Π , 1990

.-.87-91.

..Onosmetalia Mirk.et Saitov 89- -

.//..VII ..

.-: ,1990 ..101-102.

.., ..

Festuco-Brometea Br.-Bl.et Tx.43 //

..., 1991.-.96, .1. .87-98.

.., ..-

.// -

:,,. -

.--:, 1995..113-114.

.. -

.//., 1972..57, N 9..1133-1137.

..

.//

. : ֠ ͠ , 1986.

- .43-58.

.. , -

.//, -

.,1983..22-23

.., .., .., ..,

.., ..

.1.- ,-

, .- .

."." .,1988.-38 .( .

08.09,88.N6913-88).

.., .., .. -

olinietalia .//.,

., 1994. .99, .6.- 34 C.( .

07.10,88.N7011-86).

.., .., .. "

-

// " " -

- ., 1983. .13-17.

.., .. -

., 1975.159 c.

..

( .,)// :

... . .1993. .88-96.

.., .. -

//-..,1988..73,N 11.

.1583-1590.

.. ..:- ,1964.447 c.

.. , -

..1964. 79 c.

..

.//

蠠 堠  .,1988.

.31-77.

..

.. . / .

.1991. 16 .

.., .., .. -

.. 1989. 35 c.

.., . -

// , 1968. N 4.-.29-31.

.., ..

//

,1994. N5. .469-473.

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